About BIMS

Biodiversity Information Management System (BIMS) Project is a small component of the larger “Integrating Biodiversity Concepts in the Tourism Sector” Project (BITS)

Contact Us

BIMS Project - RSCN
Jubaiha - Amman, Jordan
P: (962) 06 5337931
Email: bims@rscn.org.jo
Biodiversity Information Management System

RUM

Locality and Administration:

The Greater Wadi Rum locality as the landscape lies within the Hizma Basin. About 310 km south of Amman and about 60 km north east of the coastal city of Aqaba. The area is located within the administrative territory of the Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (ASEZA) which is a financially and administratively autonomous institution responsible for the management, regulation, and the development of the Aqaba Special Economic Zone.

Six ministerial-level commissioners, each responsible for a major area of regulatory or operational activity govern the zone. The mandate of ASEZA in terms of land management covers the following administrative districts and sub-districts; Qasabat Aqaba District, Quairah District which includes, in addition to the other communities, the villages of Rum, Salhiyyeh, Shakriyyeh under its jurisdiction and Diseh Sub-District, which includes the villages of Diseh, Twaiseh, Mnaisheer, Al-Twail and Al-Ghal.



Project Site :

The study area for this component originally included the buffer zone of Wadi Rum Protected Area, RSCN decided to include the wider landscape containing the southern nearly connected mountain chains. The purpose of this extension was to look at Wadi Rum as part of a connected system of natural heritage and biodiversity values.

Physical Characteristics:

Wadi Rum is part of the Hizma Basin landscape which links the mountain ranges and adjacent Rift Valley of western Jordan and the Arabian Peninsula. Wadi Rum is the most distinctive landform of the Hizma Basin – the nearly level floor of the basin contains numerous mud flats, the remnants of Pleistocene lakes, and is occasionally punctuated by sheer-walled mountains. The spectacular sandstone structures rise 200m to 300m above the basin floor and often attain elevations of over 1000m. The Wadi Rum environment is a great example of a highly varied desert landscape .

Some 20 million years of ongoing landscape evolution have given Wadi Rum numerous inherited features of past conditions, many of which are undergoing slow modification in response to processes driven by present day conditions.

Wadi Rum lies within the Saharo-Sindian climate zone, with typical desert soils and, due to the long dry months and high temperature, sparse vegetation cover. Altitudes play a major role in deciding the vegetation type in Wadi Rum as they influence the climatic conditions. Differences in temperature and precipitation between the mountain peaks and the bottom of the Wadis have served as a deciding factor in influencing vegetation types, and allow Mediterranean non-forest vegetation types to exist on the mountain tops in the middle of the Saharo-Sudanian biome.

Social Structure :

There are six Bedouin tribes inhabiting the Greater Wadi Rum Landscape. Until recently, they relied on their nomadic life and herding livestock. They are marked by their strong tribal network and their tribal affiliation, they are as follows:
• Zalabia: inhabiting Rum village, Wadi Rum, Wadi Um Ishrin, Wadi Raman and Jabal Qattar
• Zawayda: inhabiting Diseh, Twaiseh, Mnaisheer, Al-Ghal and Al-Twail north of Wadi Rum and Wadi Um Ishrin and NE of the area
• Sweiliyyeen: inhabiting Shakriyyeh and Salhiyyeh, Wadi Raman
• Umran: inhabiting Southern part of Wadi Rum Area Livestock
• Dbour: inhabiting SW of Wadi Rum Area and the southern most parts of Wadi Marsad
• Qudhman: inhabiting Wadi Marsad

Since early times, the natural landscape of Wadi Rum was the main source of life for Bedouins and their large herds of livestock. The only year-round water sources for the local villages were the springs along the eastern face of Jabal Rum and this stimulated the development of the current village at Rum, although the first wells to be sunk in the region were located in Al Diseh Village. Water resources facilitated the gradual shift in local livelihoods, where Bedouins started to seek secure access to water resources. This resulted in the emergence of farming activities and led to overgrazing.

Wadi Rum’s tourism prior to 1962 was simple and very limited from Bedouin accounts. In 1961, the epic film “Lawrence of Arabia” was shot at Wadi Rum and this brought to the attention of movie-goers, the beauty of Wadi Rum. During filming many Bedouin men served as personal guides for crew and other

Biodiversity

The Greater Wadi Rum Landscape falls within the Sudanian vegetation region. There are three vegetation types present in the area namely:

(i) Sand Dune Vegetation Type: This vegetation type is only found in the Sudanian Vegetation Region. Wadi Rum area is one of the best representatives for it. It is made up of shrubs and bushes (sand dune fixatives). The main species that characterize this type of vegetation include Haloxylon persicum, Retama raetum, Calligonum comosum, Neurada procumbens and Hammada scopiana.
(ii) Acacia and Rocky Sudanian Vegetation Type: This vegetation is limited to the rocky areas. Sometimes it is found together with the Sand Dune Vegetation Type. The main species found in this vegetation type include Acacia raddiana, Anabasis articulata, Carulluma spp., Fagaena spp., Gymnocarpus decondrum, and Helianthermum lippii; and
(iii) Hammada Vegetation Type: The main species present in the area include Anabasis articulata, Retama raetum, Tamarix spp., Achillea fragrantissima, Artemisia herba-alba and Zilla spinosa.

The following mammal species were recorded in the area: Asiatic Jackal (Canis aureus), Grey Wolf (Canis lupus); Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Caracal (Caracal caracal), Wild Cat (Felis sylvestris), Sand Cat (Felis margarita), Hyena (Hyaena hyaena), Asian Dormouse (Eliomys melanurus), Fat Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus), Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis), Botta’s Serotine Bat (Eptesicus bottae), Dorcas Gazelle (Gazella dorcas) and Nubian Ibex (Capra ibex nubiana). The Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) has recently been reintroduced in the area. Rare and endemic species/subspecies of reptiles (Lacerta lacerta cf. kulzeri) and the globally threatened Desert Monitor (Varanus griseus) are also found in the area.

Regionally threatened bird species have been recorded in addition to many species with a restricted range which breed in the area or are recorded in winter, e.g. Sooty Falcon (Falco concolor), Arabian Babbler (Turdoides squamiceps), Hooded Wheatear (Oenanthe monacha), Pale Rose finch (Carpodacus synoicus), House Bunting (Emberiza sahari) and Syrian Serin (Serinus syriacus).

This project has targeted the wildlife present in the study area , for more details check the following reports :
- Flora of Wadi Rum Protected Area
- Flora of Wadi Rum Buffer Zone
- Biodiversity of Rum : Study of the PDTRA zone excluding PAP
- Geology of Wadi Rum and its Surroundings

Conservation:

The Government of Jordan recognized the importance of Wadi Rum as early as 1978, when it approved the IUCN / WWF study, which identified twelve sites as potential nature reserves representing the unique habitats and ecosystems occurring in Jordan. Wadi Rum was one of the sites reviewed in this study and proposed as a nature reserve.

In 1991, the National Environment Strategy for Jordan identified Wadi Rum as an important site, requiring urgent action to ensure its protection.

The Protected Area was designated as a Special Regulations Area in two phases; the first was in 1997 following a Cabinet decision. (Number: 27/11/3226). An area of 540 km2 was designated in this phase. In 2002 the Cabinet agreed to extend the Protected Area south by 180 km2. (Cabinet decision no: 224/11/1/986).

In August 2000, ASEZA was established as a replacement for the Aqaba Region Authority and supported by a framework of new legislation. This legislation that enabled the government to endorse the Wadi Rum Protected Area regulations in January 2001.

In recognition to its importance for birds, Wadi Rum Protected Area was identified as an Important Bird Area in the Middle East in 1999 by the Bird Life International. It was also reconfirmed as an Important Bird Area during the national review of bird sites, which was conducted in 2000 by RSCN.

Rum’s declaration as an Important Bird Area is testimony to the presence of globally threatened species which visit the Hizma/Wadi Rum area. They include regionally threatened species and many species with a restricted range which breed in the area or are recorded in winter. Moreover, the site lies on a main bird migration route, due to its location between the Arabian Peninsula and Eurasia.

Land use :

Tourism in Wadi Rum is nowadays the predominant land use and a major source of income for local Bedouin communities. It is also the principal cause of environmental degradation. Tourism numbers have grown steadily over several decades. Between 1998 and 2010, tourism increased more than fourfold, though there has been significant fluctuation in international visitor numbers resulting from external influences outside Jordan.

Most of the settlements occur around the Protected Area. The current distribution of Bedouin villages in and around the Protected Area was originally related to water sources. It is now more related to where tourism benefits lie. Rum Village lies in the heart of the protected area and is the only settlement inside the boundaries. Its community is part of a wider network of Bedouin tribes stretching as far as Aqaba and Saudi Arabia.

Bedouin lifestyle depended originally on the collection of firewood for cooking, heating, making coffee. In Rum, Disi, and other villages with a tourism industry, tourists on camping safaris in the Protected Area constitute another important use for firewood

Challenges:

Tourism activities compromise the main source of impacts in the Greater Wadi Rum Landscape , they are summarized in:
Camping has a negative impact on the environment where solid waste (including human waste) may be safely disposed by licensed camps but others are not as careful. In general, camps litter the landscape and damage the integrity of the fundamental asset that Wadi Rum offers.

Off-road driving: Full-day and short (3-5 hour) jeep “safaris” are Wadi Rum’s main product. The used vehicles have a negative impact, where highly visible damage to the landscape and the ecosystem from off-road driving. There is little or no appreciation of the damage to the crust (and its exposure to wind erosion), the impact on vegetation, or the aesthetic degradation by the specific tourism sector.

Camel & Horse riding: Camels are by far preferable to jeeps as far as their impact on the soil crust, but they do have a pronounced impact on vegetation. However, the carrying capacity is exceeded in areas close to camps, resulting in overgrazing. Camels eat everything. If there is a visual impact there is an environmental impact. If there is an increase in camels, there will be an increase in grazing. Camels are economically sustainable precisely because they can eat desert vegetation unpalatable to other livestock. This has a detrimental effect on species composition in the degraded areas. Horseback riding tours in Wadi Rum are an important product for many of the Petra Region providers, who own horses. But horse activities pose higher ecological risk than camels. Horses do damage the soil crust, unlike camels, although far less profoundly than vehicles. Trips on a horseback usually require daily fodder and water for the horses to be transported by vehicles.

Hunting: Although it goes virtually unmentioned, hunting is an issue in the greater Wadi Rum area and it is also a form of tourism – hunting guides have Saudi and Khaliji clients who pay handsomely for their services. It is said to be the result of a “weak level of awareness about the impact on wildlife”, failure to enforce regulations, local culture and tradition, easy access to all parts of the protected area, availability of automatic machine guns, availability of 4x4 cars in the area and the perception that wild carnivores feed on domestic livestock . Due to the illicit nature of this activity it was not possible to gather any meaningful statistical data on the extent or intensity of hunting taking place, however, rifle shells are ubiquitous throughout the greater Wadi Rum area would seem to suggest that it is an issue of concern.
Overgrazing is another issue that threats the natural system in Wadi Rum Protected area and the surrounding system.

Fauna Species

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

Arabic Name

1

Capra nubiana

Nubian Ibex

الماعز الجبلي ،البدن  

2

Paraechinus aethiopicus

Ethiopian Hedgehog

قنفذ اثيوبي 

3

Canis aureus

Asiatic Jackal

 ابن آوى

4

Canis lupus

Wolf

الذئب العربي  

5

Vulpes cana

Blanford’s Fox

الثعلب الافغاني 

6

Vulpes vulpes

Red Fox

الثعلب الاحمر 

7

Felis margarita

Sand Cat

القط الرملي 

8

Hyaena hyaena

Striped Hyaena

الضبع 

9

Rhinolophus clivosus

Geoffroy’s Horseshoe Bat

خفاش حدوة الفرس العربي 

10

Rhinolophus hipposideros

Lesser Horseshoe Bat

 خفاش حدوة الفرس الصغير

11

Otonectris hemprichii

Hemprich’s Long eared Bat

خفاش طويل الاذن 

12

Hypsugo ariel

Desert Pipistrelle

خفاش طليق الذنب 

13

Barbastella leucomelas

Asian Barbastelle

 خفاش

14

Eptesicus bottae

Botta’s Serotine Bat

خفاش بوتا 

15

Plecotus christii

Northeast African Long Ear Bat

خفاش رمادي طويل الاذن 

16

Tadarida teniotis

European Free-tailed Bat

خفاش طليق الذنب الاوروبي 

17

Eliomys melanurus

Asian Garden Dormouse

 فأر الحدائق

18

Jaculus jaculus

Three-toed Jerboa

الجربوع المصري 

19

Acomys russatus

Golden Spiny Mouse

الفأر الشوكي الذهبي 

20

Acomys dimidiatus

Eastern Spiny Mouse

---------------- 

21

Gerbillus nanus

Baluchistan Gerbil

يربوع بلوخستان 

22

Gerbillus cheesmani

Chessman’s Gerbil

فأر تشيزمان 

23

Gerbillus dasyurus

Wagner’s Gerbil

يربوع واجنر 

24

Merionus crassus

Sand evall’s Gerbil

 جرذ سندفال

25

Psammomys obesus

Fat Sand Rat

جرذ الرمال 

26

Sekeetamys calurus

Bushy-tailed Jird

 جرذ كثيف شعر الذيل

27

Lepus capensis

Arabian Hare

الارنب العربي 

28

Procavia capensis

Rock Hyrax

 الوبر

29

Histrix indica

Indian Porcupine

نيص 

30

Mus musculus

House mouse

الفأر  المنزلي 

31

Gerbillus henleyi

Pygmy Gerbil

يربوع قزم 

32

Coluber sinai,or elegantessemus

Elegant snake

الحية الانيقة  

33

Platyceps rhodorachis

Cat eyed snake

السف الأخضر 

33

Lytorhynchus diadema

Awl-headed Snake 

حية البسباس الجبلي 

34

Telescopus dhara

Piece snake

ثعبان جداري  

35

Spalerosophis diadema

Diadem Snake 

الأرقم الأحمر، حية مرقطة 

36

Eirenis coronella

Sand horned viper

حية السلام المطوقة 

37

Psammophis schokari

Carpet snake

حية السجاد  

38

Cerastes gasperettii

Blind snake

الثعبان الأعمى 

39

Echis coloratus

Carpet or saw scales snake

أفعى السجاد الشرقية 

40

Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus

 Hook-billed Blind Snake

الحية الدودية الخيطية 

41

Ptyodactylus guttatus

Fan footed gecko

أبو بريص 

42

Ptyodactylus hasselequisti

Fan footed gecko

أبو بريص 

43

Stenodactylus doriae

Sand gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة 

44

Stenodactylus sthenodactylus

Elegant gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة 

45

Pristuris rupestris

Semaphore Gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة 

46

Bunopus tuberculatus

Blauch stone gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة 

47

Hemidactylus turcicus

Turkish gecko

وزغ تركي،الوزغة 

48

Tropiocolotes nattereri

Nattereri’s gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة 

49

Nattereri’s gecko

Stellio agama

أبو بريص، الوزغة 

50

Pseudotrapelus sinaitus

Sinai Agama

الحرذون السينائي 

51

Uromastyx aegyptius

Dab OR Spiny tailed lizard

الضب 

52

Phrynocephalus arabicus

Toed head Agama

حرذون 

53

Acanthodactylus schmidti

Fringe toes sand lizard

سحلية 

54

Acanthodactylus opheodurus

Fringe-toedlizard

سحلية 

55

Acanthodactylus boskianus

Boscs lizard

 سحلية شوكية الأقدام

56

Mesalina guttulata

Small spotted lizard

السحلية المنقطة 

57

Mesalina olivieri

 Olivier’s Desert Racer

 سحلية أوليفر

58

Mesalina brevirostris

Short-nosed desert lizard

سحلية 

59

Scincus scincus

Sand fish

السنقنور 

60

Ablepharus rueppellii

Ruepilli’s skink

---------------- 

61

Phoenicolacerta kulzeri khazaliensis

Lecerta kulzeri

 سحلية

62

Acanthodactylus opheodurus

Snake like lizard

 سحلية 

63

Chamaeleo chamaeleon

Chameleon

 الحرباء

64

Varanus griseus

Desert monitor

الورل، طراد الخيل، الظليم 

65

Bufo viridis

Green toad

 العلجوم

 

AVI-Fauna Species 

No.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Arabic Name

1

Aquila verreauxii

Verreaux's Eagle

(عقاب سوداء (خدارية 

2

Hieraaetus pennatus

Booted Eagle

(العقاب المسيرة (المنتعلة 

3

Hieraaetus fasciatus

Bonelli's Eagle

 عقاب بونللي

4

Falco naumanni

Lesser Kestrel

عويسق 

5

Falco tinnunculus

Common Kestrel

 (عوسق (صقر الجراد

6

Falco concolor

Sooty Falcon

صقر الغروب ،الصقر الفاحم 

7

Falco biarmicus

Lanner

 صقر حر

8

Alectoris chukar

Chukar

حجل، شنار 

9

Ammoperdix heyi

Sand Partridge

سفرج (حجل)، الحجل الرملي 

10

Coturnix coturnix

Quail

سمان، فر، مريعي 

11

Crex crex

Corncrake

 (مرعة الغلة، مرعة الغيط (صفرد

12

Gallinula chloropus

Moorhen

دجاجة الماء 

13

Grus grus

Common Crane

الكركي الرمادي 

14

Himantopus himantopus

Black-winged Stilt

أبو المغازل، كرسوع  أبو مغازل 

15

Burhinus oedicnemus

Stone-curlew

الكروان الجبلي 

16

Oenanthe oenanthe

Common Wheatear

 

17

Oenanthe hispanica

Black-Eared Wheatear

 

18

Oenanthe deserti

Desert Wheatear

أبلق البادية، أبلق الصحراء 

19

Oenanthe finschii

Finsch's Wheatear

 أبلق عربي، أبلق فينش

20

Oenanthe moesta

Red-Rumped Wheatear

أبلق أحمر العجز 

21

Oenanthe lugens

Mourning Wheatear

سوادية 

22

Oenanthe monacha

Hooded Wheatear

(أبلق أبو طاقية (أبو قلنسوة 

23

Oenanthe leucopyga

White-crowned Black Wheatear

أبلق أسود أبيض القنة 

24

Falco cherrug

Saker

 صقر غزال

25

Falco pelegrinoides

Barbary Falcon

شاهين مغربي 

26

Motaacilla cinerea

Grey Wagtail

ذعرة (فتاح) صفراء الرأس 

27

Motacilla alba

White Wagtail

ذعرة (فتاح)  بيضاء 

28

Pycnonotus xanthopygos

Yellow-vented Bulbul

 بلبل أصفر العجز

29

Cercotrichas galactotes

Rufous Bush Robin

 أبو حناء الأحراش الأحمر

30

Luscinia luscinia

Thrush Nightingale

 العندليب

31

Phoenicurus ochruros

Black Redstart

حميراء سوداء 

32

Phoenicurus phoenicurus

Common Redstart

حميراء 

33

Cercomela melanura

Blackstart

 شحيتي،قليعي أسود الذيل

34

Saxicola rubetra

Whinchat

 قليعي أحمر، القليعي

35

Oenanthe isabellina

Isabelline Wheatear

أبلق أشهب 

36

Carduelis cannabina

Linnet

حسون تفاحي 

37

Rhodospiza obsoleta

Desert Finch

عصفور وردي صحراوي، حسون صحراوي 

38

Bucanetes githagineus

Trumpeter Finch

زمير وردي 

39

Carpodacus synocus

Sinai Rosefinch 

طائر وردي سينائي 

40

Emberiza striolata

House Bunting

(درسة منزلية (مخططة الرأس 

41

Emberiza cineracea

Cinereous Bunting

 درسة الشعير الشامي،درسة رمادية

42

Emberiza hortulana

Ortolan Bunting

درسة أورتلان ،درسة الشعير 

43

Emberiza melanocephala

Black-headed Bunting

درسة سوداء الرأس 

44

Charadrius dubius

Little Ringed Plover

قطقاط (زقزاق) مطوق صغير 

45

Hoplopterus spinosus

Spur-winged Plover

 قطقاط شوكي الجناح، أبو ظفر

46

Gallinago gallnago

Common Snipe

الشنقب (الجهلول) الشائع 

47

Tringa nebularia

Greenshank

طيطوي أخضر الساق 

48

Tringa ochropus

Green Sandpiper

 طيطوي أخضر

49

Tringa glareola

Wood Sandpiper

(طيطوي الغابة (طيطوي الغياض 

50

Actitis hypoleucos

Common Sandpiper

طيطوي اعتيادي 

51

Larus ridibundus

Black-headed Gull

نورس أسود الرأس 

52

Columbidae

Pigeons and Doves

حماميات 

53

Columba livia

Rock Dove

حمام جبلي 

54

Streptopelia decaocto

Eurasian Collared Dove

حمام مطوق، يمام مطوق 

55

Streptopelia turtur

Turtle Dove

حمام رقطي، القمري 

56

Streptopelia senegalensis

Palm Dove

 (يمام ضاحك (فاختة النخيل

57

Oena capensis

Namaqua Dove

 حمام (يمام) طويل الذنب

58

Strigidae

Typical Owls

بوم حقيقي 

59

Otus brucei

Striated Scops Owl

بومة الأشجار المخططة  

60

Bubo bubo

Eagle Owl

 (بومة نسارية (بوهة

61

Athene noctua

Little Owl

 بومة صغيرة

62

Strix butleri

Hume's Tawny Owl

بومة بتلر 

63

Caprimulgus europaeus

European Nightjar

سبد أوروبي

64

Monticola saxatilis

Rock Thrush

سمنة الصخور 

65

Monticola solitarius

Blue Rock Thrush

سمنة الصخور الزرقاء

66

Turdus philomelos

Song Thrush

سمنة مغردة 

67

Sylviidae

Warblers

دخلية 

68

Scotocerca inquieta

Scrub Warbler

نمنمة الشجر، هازجة الشجيرات 

69

Locustella fluviatilis

River Warbler

هازجة الماء، هازجة النهر 

70

Acrocephalus scirpaceus

Reed Warbler

هازجة القصب 

71

Hippolais pallida

Olivaceous Warbler

هازجة زيتونية، خنشع زيتوني 

72

Hippolais languida

Upcher's Warbler

هازجة الشجر 

73

Hippolais olivetorum

Olive-tree Warbler

هازجة الزيتون 

74

Sylvia cantillans

Subalpine Warbler

هازجة (دخلة) الصرود 

75

Sylvia nana

Desert Warbler

هازجة (دخلة) الصحراء 

76

Sylvia hortensis

Orphean Warbler

هازجة (دخلة) الحدائق 

77

Sylvia nisoria

Barred Warbler

 هازجة موشمة،هازجة موشحة

78

Sylvia curruca

Lesser Whitethroat

زريقة فيرانية صغيرة 

79

Sylvia communis

Whitethroat

دخلة بيضاء الزور، زريقة فيراني 

80

Sylvia borin

Garden Warbler

هازجة (دخلة) البساتين 

81

Sylvia atricapilla

Blackcap

 (عصفور التين(ابو قلنسوة

82

Phylloscopus collybita

Chiffchaff

(نقشارة(سكسكة 

83

Phylloscopus trochilus

Willow Warbler

 نقشارة الصفصاف، سكسكة الصفصاف

84

Fringilla coelebs

Chaffinch

عصفور ظالم 

85

Carduelis carduelis

Goldfinch

 حسون ذهبي 

86

Lxobrychus minutus

Little Bittern

 الواق الصغير

87

Ardeola ralloides

Squacco Heron

واق أبيض صغير 

88

Bubulcus ibis

Cattle Egret

بلشون البقر،أبوقردان 

89

Egretta garzetta

Little Egret

بلشون صغير 

90

Ciconia nigra

Black Stork

لقلق أسود 

91

Anas penelope

Wigeon

الصواي 

92

Anas querquedula

Garganey

 شرشير صيفي، حذف صيفي

93

Anas clypeata

Shoveler

 الكيش )أبو مجرف)

94

Milvus migrans

Black Kite

حدأة  سوداء 

95

Gypaetus barbatus

Lammergeier

 النسر الملتحي، كاسر العظم

96

Neophron percnopterus

Egyptian Vulture

الرخمة المصرية 

97

Gyps fulvus

Griffon Vulture

نسر جريفون، نسر بني 

98

Circaetus gallicus

Short-toed Eagle

 عقاب صرارة،نسر الثعابين

99

Circus aeruginosus

Marsh Harrier

مرزة البطائح 

100

Circus macrourus

Pallid Harrier

 مرزة بغثاء،باهتة

101

Buteo buteo

Common Buzzard

صقر حوام 

102

Buteo rufinus

Long-legged Buzzard

 حوام طويل الساق، صقر حوام

103

Caprimulgus aegyptiacus

Egyptian Nightjar

سبد مصري 

104

Apus apus

Common Swift

سمامة عادية 

105

Apus pallidus

Pallid Swift

سمامة باهتة 

106

Merops apiaster

European Bee-eater

وروار شائع، وروار أوروبي 

107

Coracias garrulus

European Roller

غراب زيتوني،أوروبي،أخيل أوروبي 

108

Upupa epops

Hoopoe

 هدهد

109

Ammomanes cincturus

Bar-tailed Desert Lark

قبرة موشمة الذنب 

110

Ammomanes deserti

Desert Lark

قبرة الصحراء 

111

Alaemon alaudipes

Hoopoe Lark

قبرة هدهدية 

112

Calandrella rufescens

Lesser Short-toed Lark

قبرة قصيرة الأصابع صغيرة 

113

Galerida cristata

Crested Lark

قبرة متوجة 

114

Eremophila bilopha

Temminck's Horned Lark

(قبرة تمنك القرناء (قبرة تمنك 

115

Riparia riparia

Sand Martin

خطاف الشواطيء 

116

Ptyonoprogne fuligula

Pale Crag Martin

 

117

Ptyonoprogne rupestris

Crag Martin

خطاف الشواهق 

118

Hirundo rustica

Barn Swallow

سنونو 

119

Hirundo daurica

Red-rumped Swallow

سنونو أحمر العجز 

120

Delichon urbica

House Martin

خطاف البيوت، خطاف الضواحي 

121

Anthus similis

Long-billed Pipit

جشنة الصحراء، أبو تمرة الصحراء 

122

Phylloscopus sibilatrix

Wood Warbler

نقشارة الغاب

 

Flora Species

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

Arabic Name

1

Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B. L. Burtt

------------------------ 

 -----------------------

2

Adiantum capillus-veneris L

Maidenhair

----------------------- 

3

Aizoon canariense L

Aizoon

حدق

4

Pistacia atlantica Desf

Atlanti Pistachio

بطم أطلسي

5

Phoenix dactylifera L

Date Palm Tree

نخيل البلح

6

Caralluma negevensis Zohary

Caralluma 

دويدة

7

Gomphocarpus sinaicus Boiss

Milkweed

زيتة ،غلقة الدب

8

Anchusa milleri Willd

Miller's Alkanet

حمحم صحراوي

9

Arnebia decumbens (Vent.) Cosson & Kralik

Prophet-Flower

كحيل مضجع

10

Cynoglossum creticum Miller

Hounds tongue

غريف،لزيق

11

Echium rauwolfii Delile

Bugloss

حناء الغول

12

Heliotropium arbainense Fresen

Heliotrope

عطان،عطاني

13

Heliotropium maris-mortui Zohary

Heliotrope

--------------------- 

14

Hormuzakia aggregata (Lehm.) Gusul

 

لسان النعجة

15

Paracaryum rugulosum (DC.) Boiss

Persian Navelseed

غبيشة ،أم لبيد

16

Podonosma orientalis (L.) Feinbrun

Golden-Drop

مصيص

17

Trichodesma africanum (L.) Lehm

African Trichodesma

حمحم،لسان الثور

18

Capparis spinosa L

Common Caper

كبار،قبار

19

Cleome arabica L

Arabian Cleome

ام رميل العربية

20

Gymnocarpos decandrum Forssk

 

قضيم

21

Paronychia sinaica Fresen

Whitlow-wort

رجل حمامة

22

Robbairea delileana Milne-Redhead

 

 

 

23

Silene colorata Poiret

Cloven-talled Catchfly

عين البنت

24

Silene villosa Forssk

Villous Catchfly

نوار،عطاني

25

Anabasis articulata (Forssk.) Moq

Jointed Anabasis

العجرم

26

Anabasis setifera Moq

Glasswort

حمض ،عضو

27

Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) Moris & Delponte

 

 

العثنان،خريسي

28

Atriplex halimus L

Tall Orache

قطف ملحي

29

Atriplex leucoclada Boiss

Saltbush; Orache

رغل أبيض الفروع

30

Bassia eriophora ( Schrader ) Asch

Woolly Saltwort

قطينة ،أم صوفة

31

Haloxylon persicum Bunge

White Saksaul

الغضا

32

Noaea mucronata (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf

Thorny Saltwort

شوك الحنيش

33

Hammada salicornica (Moq.) Iljin

Hammada

الرمث

34

Helianthemum lippii (L.) Dum.Cours

Sun Rose

جرد،رقروق

35

Helianthemum lasiocarpum Desf

Ledum-leaved sun-rose

اجرد الكماة

36

Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb et Eig

Aaronosohnia

اقحوان أقرع

37

Anthemis melampodina Delile subsp. Deserti (Bioss) Eig

Negev Chamomile

أريبان أسود القدم

38

Artemisia inculta Delile

Wormwood

 

39

Artemisia judaica L

Judean Wormwood

بعيثران

40

Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less

Stinkwort

الربد ، عين البقر

41

Calendula arvensis L

Field Marigold

اقحوان بري

42

Carduus argentatus L

Silvered thistle

 

43

Carduus australis L. fil

Thistle

لسان الكلب ، خرفيش

44

Carthamus nitidus Boiss

Safflower

قرطم لامع

45

Carthamus persicus Willd

Wild safflower

 

46

Centaurea eryngioides Lam

Eryngo Centaury

مرار بنفسجي

47

Centaurea procurrens Sieber ex Sprengel

Procumbent Centaury

مرار زاحف

48

Crepis sancta (L.) Bornm

Hawkweed

صفيرة

49

Echinops polyceras Boiss

Globe Thistle

حرفاش ،ارث

50

Filago desertorum Pomel

Desert Cudweed

قطينة ،قربط

51

Gymnarrhena micrantha Desf

Gymnarrhena

خف الكلب

52

Ifloga spicata (Forssk.) Schultz Bip

 

قرطف سنبلي

53

Lasiopogon muscoides (Desf.) DC

Wooly Everlasting

قطينة ،كريشة الجدي

54

Launaea capitata (Sprengel) Ddandy

Clustered launaea

مرار لبني

55

Launaea mucronata (Forssk.) Muschler

 

 

56

Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hooker fil

 

الحواءة،هندباء الحماد

57

Leysera leyseroides (Desf) Maire

Leysera

رقيقة

58

Onopordum alexandrinum Boiss

Cotton Thistle

عتور ،شوك

59

Phagnalon rupestre (L.) DC.

African Fleabane

 

60

Picris cyanocarpa Boiss

Oxtongue

 

61

Picris damascena Boiss. & Gaill

 

حوذان دمشقي

62

Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliver

Crisp Fleabane

جثجاث

63

Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.

Wave-leaved Fleabane

ربل،شاي الجبل

64

Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth

Poppy- leaved Reichardia

عضيد،رشادية

65

Senecio flavus (Decne.) Schultz Bip

Decaisne Groundsel

زمروق، مرورة

66

Senecio glaucus L. subsp. Coropifolius (Maire) Alexander

Buck's-horn Groundsel

قراعي،الجرجار

67

Sonchus oleraceus L

Common Sow Thistle

جعضيض

68

Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche

 

كتيله ،صفيرة

69

Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Schultz Bip

Sweet-smelling Lavender Cotton

قيصوم جبلي

70

Brassica tournefortii Gouan

African Mustard

فويته

71

Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss

Hairy Rocket

حراقة ، الحارة

72

Diplotaxis spp.

 

 

73

Eremobium aegyptiacum (Sprengel)

Eremobium

غبيشة

74

Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce

Spanish pink mustard

غراء

75

Farsetia aegyptiaca Turra

Giant fennel

الجرباء

76

Malcolmia conringioides

Yellow Malcomia

مالكوميا صحراوية

77

Matthiola livida (Delile) DC

Gilli flower

 

78

Matthiola logipetala (Vent.) DC

Evening Stock

الشقارى

79

Morettia canescens Boiss

Morettia

ربل

80

Neslia apiculata Fischer C. A. Mey. & Ave-Lall

Ball Mustard

فريدة

81

Sisymbrium bilobum ( C. Koch) Grossh

 

 

82

Stigmatella longistyla Eig

Stigmatella

ميسمية

83

Zilla spinosa (L.) Prantl

Zilla

سلة ، صلة

84

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader

Bitter Apple

حنظل ،شرى ،علقم

85

Cynomorium coccineum L

Maltese mushroom

مصرور

86

Ephedra aphylla Forssk

Ephedra

علند

87

Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss

Spurge

حلببون ، حليلوب

88

Fumaria densiflora DC

Dense-flowered Fumitory

شاهترج ،رز الدجاج

89

Erodium hirtum Willd

Stork's-Bill

قرنوة وبرية،بختري

90

Erodium bryoniifolium Boiss

 

 

91

Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd

Cut-leaved stork's bill

قرنوة مقسمة

92

Aristida adscensionis L

Six-weeks triple-awn

 

93

Avena sterilis L

Animated oat

شوفان

94

Bromus tectorum L

Drooping brome

 

95

Cutandia memphitica (Sprengel) Bentham

Memphisgrass

 

96

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

Bermuda Grass

نجيل ،ثيل

97

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf

Annual beardgrass

 

98

Stipa capensis Thnub

Cape feathergrass

صمعة ،ركيبة

99

Stipa spp.

 

 

100

Tetrapogon villosus Desf

 

 

101

Gynandriris sisyrinchium (L.) Parl

Afternoon Iris

 

102

Juncus rigidus Desf

 

 

103

Ballota sexatilis Sieber ex C. Presl

Horehound

 

104

Ballota undulata (Sieber ex Fresen.) Bentham

Common Black Horehound

شرمان ،كتيلة

105

Lamium amplexicaule L

Lamium amplexicaule L

لاميوم

106

Lavandula coronopifolia Poiret

 

 

107

Mentha longifloia (L.) Hudson

Biblical- or horse mint

نعناع طويل الأوراق 

108

Nepeta calycina Fenzl

 

 

109

Origanum syriacum L

 

زعتر

110

Salvia deserti Decne

Desert sage

 

111

Salvia lanigera Poiret

Desert Sage

قرعية ،براقم

112

Teucrium leucocladum Boiss

Germander

جعدة بيضاء الفروع

113

Teucrium polium L

 

جعدة

114

Ajuga chia Schreber

Chain Bugle

عشبة الدم

115

Allium spp.

 

 

116

Asparagus stipularis Forssk

Asparagus

زهر الهواء ،عجرم

117

Asphodelus fistulosus L

Hollow-Stemmed Asphodel

غيصلان،بصيل

118

Bellevalia desertorum Eig & Feinbr

Bellevalia

بصيل صحراوي

119

Gagea reticulata (Pallas) Schult. Fil

Gagea

زعيتمان

120

Leopoldia longipes (Boiss.) Losinsk

Long-stalked leopoldia

بصيل أزرق طويل

121

Ornithogalum neurostegium Boiss. & Blanche

Star-of-Bethlehem

 

122

Urginea maritima (L.) Baker

Sea Onion

عيصلان،بوصلان

123

Malva parviflora L

Cheesweed, mallow

خبيزة

124

Acacia raddiana Savi

Acacia

طلح شعاعي

125

Ficus carica L

Fig

تين عادي

126

Ficus pseudo-sycomorus Decne

 

حماط

127

Cistanche salsa (C. A. Mey) G. Beck

Pink Broomrape

ذئنون ملحي

128

Glaucium arabicum Fresen

Horned poppy

قطرة،بخيته

129

Hypecoum geslinii Coss. & Kral

 

 

130

Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC.

 

نعيمة

131

Astragalus annularis Forssk

Milk-Vetch

فقعة ،أصابع العروس

132

Astragalus sanctus Boiss

Blessed Milk-Vetch

 

133

Astragalus sieberi DC

Sieber's Milk Vetch

خنصر العروس

134

Astragalus spinosus (Forssk.) Muschler

Spiny Milk-Vetch

قتاد شوكي ،قداد

135

Astragalus tribuloides Delile

Caltrop Milk-Vetch

 

136

Colutea istria Miller

Bladder senna

السيسبان

137

Crotalaria aegyptiaca Bentham

Egyptian rattlebox

قلاقل

138

Hippocrepis unisiliquosa L.

Horseshoe vetch

حدوية ،وحيدة القرن

139

Lotus halophilus Boiss. & Spruner

Greater bird's foot trefoil

 

140

Ononis hirta Desf. Ex Poiret

Hairy rest harrow

 

141

Ononis natrix L

Shrubby Restharrow

لزيق ،لتين

142

Ononis sicula Guss

Rest harrow

اللتين السيسلي

143

Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb & Berth

White Broom

الرتم

144

Trigonella stellata Forssk

Star fenugreek

حلية مخملية ،تفل

145

Plantago ciliata Desf

Ciliate plantain

 

146

Plantago cylindrica Forssk

Cylindrical plantain

ربل اسطواني ،ينم

147

Plantago ovata Forssk

Blond psyllium

 

148

Rumex vesicarius L

Bladder dock

 

149

Caylusea hexagyna (Forssk.) M. Green

 

 

150

Ochradenus baccatus Delile

Ochradenus

العنلدر،قرضة

151

Reseda muricata K. Presl

Prickly mignonette

قرضة،قرضي

152

Reseda stenostachya Boiss

Dead Sea Mignonette

حصاد البحر الميت

153

Rhamnus dispermus Ehrenb. Ex Boiss

Buckthorn

سويد 

154

Galium aparine L

Cleaver's goose grass

 

155

Galium sinaicum (Delile ex Decne.) Boiss

 

 

156

Galium spp.

Bedstraw

 

157

Kickxia acerbiana (Boiss.) Tackh. & Boulos

Fluellen

 

158

Kickxia spartioides (Brouss. Ex Buch ) Janchen

Fluellen

 

159

Linaria haelava (Forssk.) Delile

Haelava Toadflax

حلاوة،نوار

160

Scrophularia deserti Delile

Figwort

 

161

Scrophularia xylorrhiza Boiss

Figwort

 

162

Verbascum fruticulosum Post

Mullein

 

163

Verbascum sinaiticum Bentham

Verbascum Sinuatum

عمية

164

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L

Water speedwell

 

165

Hyoscyamus desertorum (Asch. Ex Boiss.) Tackh

Desert Henban

سكران

166

Hyoscyamus pusillus L

Dwarf henbane

 

167

Lycium shawii Roemer & Schultes

Boxthorn,Desert-thorn

عوسج

168

Solanum sinaicum Boiss

Nightshade

 

169

Eryngium glomeratum Lam

 

عود القزم

170

Ferula communis L

Common Giant Fennel

كلخ

171

Zosima absinthifolia (Vent.) Link

 

 

172

Forsskaolea tenacissima L

 

 

173

Urtica pilulifera L

Roman Nettle

قريص

174

Fagonia bruguierei DC

Fagonbush

 

175

Fagonia glutinosa Delile

Fagonbush

 

176

Peganum harmala L

Peganum

حرمل

177

Fagonia arabica L

Gamda