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Biodiversity Information Management System (BIMS) Project is a small component of the larger “Integrating Biodiversity Concepts in the Tourism Sector” Project (BITS)

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BIMS Project - RSCN
Jubaiha - Amman, Jordan
P: (962) 06 5337931
Email: bims@rscn.org.jo
Biodiversity Information Management System

Petra

Locality and Administration:

Petra is located within Ma’an Governorate in the south of Jordan, about 240 Km south of Amman. Dating to around 300 B.C., it was the capital of the Nabatean Kingdom. Accessed via a narrow canyon called Al Siq, it contains tombs and temples carved into pink sandstone cliffs, earning its nickname, the "Rose City." Perhaps its most famous structure is Al Khazneh, a temple with an ornate, Greek-style facade.

Petra area is managed by the Petra Development and Tourism Region Authority (PDTRA) : an administratively autonomous body established in 2009 and it administers an area of 79,641ha The region is best known for the renowned World Heritage Site – the Petra Archaeological Park (PAP)


Project Site :

The project area includes the PDTRA in addition to a northern extension towards Al Hisheh area and a southern extension that includes the eastern part of the Masuda Proposed Protected Area.

Physical Characteristics:

Petra is a mountainous region on the western edge of Wadi Araba, the Jordan Rift Valley. There is a considerable variation in its topography , its elevation varies from 200 m asl at Wadi Araba to 1,115 m asl in Wadi Musa, and 1340 m asl in Shoubak; to a maximum altitude of 1734 m asl at Jabel Al-Hisha, 6km north of Wadi Musa.

The area is considered a very arid to semi-arid, and marked by sharp seasonal variation in both temperature and rainfall. Annual rainfall is about 298mm and it occurs only in the winter season.

To the east, Petra Area is dominated by the high limestone tabular plateau (Sharah Mountain with 1500m.). A series of springs (as 'Ain Mousa) appear at the base. Inside ancient city of Petra, the sandstone massif is formed, at the upper level of its stratigraphy of white to varying color sandstones. Whereas to the west, at the lower level, of the characteristic striated dark sandstones.

The ancient city of Petra is located in the heart of a mountainous desert, but importantly, adjacent to an ancient route down from the high plateau to Wadi Araba within Petra National Park (PAP). The PAP site occupies an open valley surrounded by mountains. The gorges were formed when the force of desert flash floods exploited lines of weakness in the rocks (faults, joints and fractures) -over many thousands of years, and the process continues today.

Social Structure :

The targeted area includes six main communities : Baidha, Umm Sayhoun, Wadi Musa, Taybeh, Rajif and Dlagha.
The said communities are located within the broader of the Petra Development and Tourism Region Authority (PDTRA) within the western parts of Ma’an Governorate. Wadi Musa town represent about 61% of the population of Petra, while Beydah village include the smallest population.

Three major social styles, these are, the city style, the village style and nomadic. In general, the communities of the Petra region identify themselves primarily in terms of Family/tribal affiliations, and each is dominated by a distinct tribe or clan group

Biodiversity

The Petra region is important ecologically as it spans four different biogeographical zones according to the distribution of plants: Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian at higher elevations, and Saharo-Arabian and the Afro-tropical penetration zone at medium to low altitudes. The altitude gradient has a significant influence on biological diversity and supports the stability of the populations of several rare species in Jordan and the entire region, e.g. Nubian Ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), and several other species of invertebrates, reptiles, mammals and resident birds. The Petra Mountains also include wadis flowing from east to west into Wadi Araba, which form natural corridors, enabling local movement of certain wild animals. The Mountains also lie along an important route for bird migration, including the migration of soaring birds.

RSCN’s surveys confirm the importance of Petra for threatened mammals and reptiles as well, e.g. Nubian Ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis), Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Cape Hare (Lepus capensis), Wolf (Canis lupus), Blandford’s Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena), Greek Tortoise (Testudo graeca), etc

Throughout the years, almost 750 plant species has been reported by previous studies in Petra. This comprises more than one fourth of the flora in Jordan. Literature shows that at least 25 flora species of Petra are considered endemic to Jordan and to the Eastern Mediterranean region and more than 23 species are considered threatened at both national and regional levels including tree species.

Endemic plant species inhabiting the Petra Region include:

Ferula sinaica, Anthemis edumea , Anthemis maris-mortui , Nabatean Daisy Anthemis nabatea , Cousinia dayi, Cousinia moabitica, Filago inexpectata, Picris amalectana , Heliotropum maris-mortui, Matthiola arabica , Milk Vetch Astragalus aaronsohnianus, Moab Crocus Crocus moabiticus, Pistacia khinjuk , Edom Iris Iris edomensis; Petra Iris Iris petrana ; Romulea of Petra Romelea petraea ; Ballota philistaea; Phlomis platystegia, Colchicum tunicatum, Egyptian toadflax Kickxia aegtyptiaea ; Petra Toadflax Kickxia petrana; Scrophularia nabataeorum ; Boxthorn Lycium petraeum ; Jordan Tamarisk Tamarix palaestina and Seetzenia lanata.

Threatened plant species inhabiting the Petra Region include:

Atlantic pistachio Pistacia atlantico , Sadom’s Apple Catotropsis procera ; Caralluma sinaica, Crown daisy Chrysanthemum coronarium , Tragopogon collinus, Egyptian Balsam Balanitis aegyptica; Arabis nova; Hesperis pendula; Funeral Cypress Cupressus sempervirens; Phoenican Jiniper Juniperus phoenica; Kermes Oak Quercus calliprines; Arabian Globularia Globularia arabica ;Aloe Aloe vera ; Wild Tulip Tulipa systola ; Acacia Acacia raddiana ; Acacia tortolis ; Moringa peregrina ; Scarce March Helleborne Epipactis veratrifolia ; Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera ; Red horned poppy Glaucium grandifloorum ; Calligonumm comosum ; Ochradenus baccatus ; Christ’s Thorn Ziziphus spinachristi; Wild almond Amygdalus korschinskyii ; and Toothbrush tree / Siwak Salvadora persica ;

This project has targeted the wildlife present in the study area , for more details check the following reports :
- Flora of Petra : Study of the PDTRA zone excluding PAP
- Fauna of Petra : Study of the PDTRA zone excluding PAP
- Biodiversity of PAP
- Geology of Petra

Conservation Status:

The PDTRA has no protected areas for biodiversity conservation in its territory. Yet, adjacent and to close proximity to the region, is the proposed Shoubak Protected Area is found where part of it : Al Hisheh is a part of the study site. South of the study site is the north eastern part of Masuda Proposed Protected Area.

Petra was declared an Important Bird Area in 2000 because globally threatened species (e.g. Imperial Eagle, Aquila heliaca, in winter), regionally declining species (e.g. Lammergeier Eagle, Gypaetus barbatus, Bonelli’s Eagle, Hieraaetus fasciatus fasciatus) and species with a restricted range (e.g. Sand Partridge, Ammoperdix heyi, Hume’s Tawny Owl, Strix butleri, Syrian Serin, Serinus syriacus, Pale Rose Finch, Carpodacus synoicus, House Bunting, Emberiza striolata) have been recorded in the Petra area.

Land use :

The Petra region is best known for its renowned World Heritage Site – the Petra Archaeological Park (PAP) and the tourism sector are the most important ingredients for economic as well as social development. The dramatic rock-cut temples and tombs as well as the water collection, distribution and storage system of the Nabataeans represent unique artistic and technical achievements. This outstanding universal value was recognized when in Petra was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. The Cultural Space of the Bedoins was also inscribed on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List of Humanity in 2008.

There are currently six existing land uses within the Petra region. These are:

 Urban development areas and represented by the communities of Baidha, Umm Sayhoun, Wadi Musa, Taybeh, Rajif, and Dlagha.
 Agriculture: Focus on farming dry-farmed barley, and practiced on small cleared fields throughout the region, in addition to limited areas of olive trees and fruit trees. Larger farms are concentrated on the eastern margin of the Region, where the land is less steep and more suitable for farming.
 Forestry: The Hisheh oak forest was historically a source of firewood and building materials for the Nabataean and later cultures of the Petra region. Over time major part this forests cover was removed. In addition, studies concerning flooding within the Siq have suggested afforestation of the upper reaches of the watersheds that drain into the “PAP”.
 Protected areas, such as the Petra Archaeological Park and Masudah and Al Shawbak Proposed protected areas . This includes all the tourism activities that take place in the site.
 Mining: The Natural Resource Authority has identified mineral resources of national significance within the Petra region.
 Undeveloped Areas (Open Space): such area are not suitable for residential and/or economic usage due to different types of constrains, especially morphological constrains.

Challenges:

The Petra Region is characterized by the presence of wide and rich Biodiversity system, that is currently subjected to several threats that can be related to the current land use pattern and the associated human activities: such as : Hunting , Habitat fragmentation; Flash floods; Expanding agricultural activities and the use of chemical fertilizers ; The dry up and or the drop in the flow of many springs in the Region; Overgrazing due to the livestock husbandry by the local communities , and tress cutting by the locals to be used for cooking and heating

Infrastructure deficiencies at the community level limit the economic development and aggravate environmental problems. Improvements within the PAP as well as other tourism related products and services could - with careful planning - enhance the economic situation and living quality, reduce social disparities and tensions and protect the region’s natural and cultural resources. The Strategic Master Plan addresses the most pressing socio-economic and environmental issues related to the PAP, tourism growth, efficient land-use, as well as other social and infrastructural challenges, which were expressed in the course of the numerous personal interviews, community workshops and discussions in the communities.

Fauna Species 

 

Scientific Name 

Common Name 

Arabic Name

1

Bufo viridis

Green Toad

العلجوم

2

Ptyodactylus guttatus

Spotted Fan- footed Gecko

أبو بريص

3

Ptyodactylus hasselquistii

Egyptian Fan- footed Gecko

أبو بريص

4

Stenodactylus sthenodactylus

Elegant Thin- toed Gecko

أبو بريص

5

Laudakia stellio brachydactyla

Starred Agama

الحرذون

6

Pseudotrapelus sinaitus

Sinai Agama

الحرذون السينائي

7

Acanthodactylus boskianus

Spiny- footed Lizard

سحلية شوكية الأقدام

8

Acanthodactylus grandis

Giant Fringe- toed Lizard

سحلية شوكية الاقدام

9

Mesalina guttulata

Small- spotted Racer

السحلية المنقطة

10

Mesalina olivieri

Olivier’s Desert Racer

سحلية أوليفر

11

Walterinnesia aegyptia

Black Copra

الكوبرا المصرية

12

Echis coloratus

Saw Scaled Viper

أفعى السجاد الشرقية

13

Coluber rhodorachis

Jan’s Whip Snake

السف الأخضر

14

Psammophis schokari

Forskal’s Sand Snake

البسباس الجبلي

15

Vulpes cana

Blanford’s Fox

الثعلب الافغاني

16

Vulpes vulpes

Red Fox

الثعلب الاحمر

17

Hyaena hyaena

Striped Hyena

الضبع

18

Capra nubiana

Nubian Ibex

الماعز الجبلي ،البدن

19

Asellia tridens

Trident Leaf-nosed Bat

خفاش ورقي الانف

20

Tadarida teniotis

European Free-tailed Bat

خفاش طليق الذنب الاوروبي

21

Rhinolophus clivosus

Geoffroy’s Horseshoe Bat

خفاش حدوة الفرس العربي

22

Rhinopoma cystops

Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat

خفاش بودنهيمر

23

Rhinopoma microphyllum

Greater Rat-tailed Bat

خفاش طليق الذنب الكبير

24

Barbastella leucomelas

Asian Barbastelle

 _____________

25

Eptesicus bottae

Botta’s Serotine Bat

خفاش بوتا

26

Hypsugoariel

Desert Pipistrelle

خفاش الصحراء المصري

27

Otonycteri shemprichii

Hemprich’s Long-eared Bat

خفاش طويل الأذن

28

Pipistrellus pipistrellus

Common Pipistrelle

  _____________

29

Plecotus christii

Northeast African Long Ear Bat

خفاش رمادي طويل الأذن

30

Erinaceus concolor

East European Hedgehog

قنفذ اوروبي

31

Paraechinus aethiopicus

Ethiopian Hedgehog

قنفذ اثيوبي

32

Crocidura etruscus

Pygmy White-toothed Shrew

الزبابة القزم

33

Procavia capensis

Rock Hyrax

الوبر

34

Jaculus jaculus

Three-toed Jerboa

الجربوع المصري

35

Eliomys melanurus

Southwest Asian Dormouse

فأر الحدائق

36

Hystrix indica

Indian Crested Porcupine

نيص

37

Acomys dimidiatus

Eastern Spiny Mouse

  _____________

38

Acomys russatus

Golden Spiny Mouse

الفأر الشوكي الذهبي

39

Apodemus mystacinus

Broad-toothed Field Mouse

فأر الحقل عريض الاسنان

40

Dipodillus dasyurus

Wagner’s Gerbil

يربوع واجنر

41

Sekeeta myscalurus

Bushy-tailed Jird

جرذ كثيف شعر الذيل

42

Spalaxe hrenbergi

Middle East Blind Mole Rat

  _____________

 

AVI-Fauna 

No.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Arabic Name

1

Accipiter nisus

Sparrow hawk

باشق

2

Alauda arvensis

Skylark

قبرة السماء

3

Alectoris chukar

Chukar

حجل، شنار

4

Ammomanes deserti

Desert Lark

قبرة الصحراء

5

Ammoperdix heyi

Sand Partridge

سفرج (حجل)، الحجل الرملي

6

Anthus smiles

Long-billed Pipit

جشنة طويلة المنقار، أبو تمرة

7

Anthus campestris

Tawny Pipit

  _____________

8

Anthus cervinus

Red-throated Pipit

أحمر الزور

9

Apus apus

Swift

سمامة عادية

10

Apus melba

Alpine Swift

سمامة الصرور

11

Apus pallidus

Pallid Swift

سمامة باهتة

12

Aquila pomarina

Lesser Spotted Eagle

عقاب أسفع(أرقط) صغير

13

Ardeola ralloides

Squacco Heron

واق أبيض صغير

14

Athene noctua

Little Owl

بومة صغيرة

15

Bucanetes githagineus

Trumpeter Finch

زمير وردي

16

Buteo buteo

Buzzard

صقر حوام

17

Buteo rufinus

Long-legged Buzzard

حوام طويل الساق، صقر حوام

18

Calandrella brachydactyla

Short-toed Lark

قبرة قصيرة الأصابع

19

Carduelis cannabina

Linnet

حسون تفاحي

20

Carduelis carduelis

Goldfinch

حسون ذهبي

21

Carduelis chloris

Greenfinch

حسون أخضر

22

Carpodacus synoicus

Sinai Rose finch

عصفور وردي سينائي

23

Cercomela melanura

Black start

شحيتي،قليعي أسود الذيل

24

Cercotrichas galactotes

Rufous Bush Robin

أبو حناء الأحراش الأحمر

25

Circaetus gallicus

Short-toed Eagle

عقاب صرارة،نسر الثعابين

26

Clamatus glandarius

Great Spotted Cuckoo

وقواق منقط، وقواق مرقط كبير

27

Corvus rhipidurus

Fan-tailed Raven

غراب مروحي الذنب

28

Corvus ruficollis

Brown-necked Raven

غراب بني العنق

29

Cuculus canorus

Cuckoo

وقواق شائع

30

Delicho nurbica

House Martin

خطاف البيوت، خطاف الضواحي

31

Emberiza cineracea

Cinereous Bunting

درسة الشعير الشامي،درسة رمادية

32

Emberiza hortulana

Ortolan Bunting

درسة أورتلان ،درسة الشعير

33

Emberiza striolata

House Bunting

(درسة منزلية (مخططة الرأس

34

Emberiza caesia

Cretzschmar's Bunting

درسة كرتزجمار ،مزرقة الرأس

35

Falco biarmicus

Lanner Falcon

صقر حر

36

Falco concolor

Sooty Falcon

صقر الغروب ،الصقر الفاحم

37

Falco naumanni

Lesser Kestrel

عويسق

38

Falco pelegrinoides

Barbary Falcon

شاهين مغربي

39

Falco peregrinus

Peregrine Falcon

شاهين

40

Falco tinnunculus

Kestrel

(عوسق (صقر الجراد

41

Ficedulas emitorquata

Semi-collared Flycatcher

خاطف الذباب شبه المطوق

42

Fringilla coelebs

Chaffinch

عصفور ظالم

43

Galerida cristata

Crested Lark

قبرة متوجة

44

Hieraaetus fasciatus

Bonelli's Eagle

عقاب بونللي

45

Hieraaetus pennatus

Booted Eagle

(العقاب المسيرة (المنتعلة

46

Hippolais pallida

Olivaceous Warbler

هازجة زيتونية، خنشع زيتوني

47

Hippolais languida

Upcher's Warbler

هازجة الشجر

48

Hippolaiso livetorum

Olive-tree Warbler

هازجة الزيتون

49

Hirundo daurica

Red-rumped Swallow

سنونو أحمر العجز

50

Hirundo rustica

Swallow

سنونو

51

Icedula albicollis

Collared Flycatcher

خاطف الذباب المطوق

52

Jynxtor quilla

Wryneck

لواء

53

Lanius senator

Woodchat Shrike

صرد (دقناش) محمر القنة

54

Lanius collurio

Red-backed Shrike

صرد (دقناش) محمر الظهر

55

Lanius nubicus

Masked Shrike

صرد (دقناش) مقنع

56

Luscinia luscinia

Thrush Nightingale

العندليب

57

Luscinia megarhynchos

Nightingale

هزار اوروبي

58

Melanocorypha calandra

Calandra Lark

قبرة شرقية كبيرة، قبرة كلاندرا

59

Meropsa piaster

European Bee-eater

وروار شائع، وروار أوروبي

60

Miliaria calandra

Corn Bunting

درسة إعتيادية ،‎‎درسة القمح

61

Milvus migrans

Black Kite

حدأة سوداء

62

Monticola saxatilis

Blue Rock Thrush

سمنة الصخور الزرقاء

63

Monticola solitarius

White Wagtail

سمنة الصخور

64

Motacilla alba

Grey Wagtail

ذعرة (فتاح) بيضاء

65

Motacilla cinerea

Yellow Wagtail

ذعرة (فتاح) صفراء

66

Motacilla flava

Spotted Flycatcher

ذعرة (فتاح)  رمادية

67

Muscicapi astriata

Palestine Sunbird

تمير فلسطيني، مغرد فلسطيني

68

Nectariniaosea

Egyptian Vulture

الرخمة المصرية

69

Neophronper cnopterus

Black-eared Wheatear

_____________

70

Oenanthe hispanica

Isabelline Wheatear

أبلق أشهب

71

Oenantheisa bellina

White-crowned Black Wheatear

أبلق أسود الاذن

72

Oenanthel eucopyga

Mourning Wheatear

أبلق حزين

73

Oenanthe lugens

Tristram's Grackle

سوادية

74

Onychognathus tristramii

Golden Oriole

صفير ذهبي ،عصفور التوت

75

Oriolus oriolus

Great Tit

القرقف الكبير

76

Parus major

House Sparrow

عصفور دوري

77

Passer domesticus

Spanish Sparrow

عصفور اسباني، دوري اسباني

78

Passer hispaniolensis

Honey Buzzard

(حوام النحل الآسيوي (المتوج

79

Pernisa pivorus

Pale Rock Sparrow

عصفور صخري باهت

80

Petronia brachydactyla

Rock Sparrow

عصفور صخري

81

Phoenicurus ochruros

Black Redstart

حميراء سوداء

82

Phoenicurus phoenicurus

Redstart

حميراء

83

Phyllosco puscollybita

Chiffchaff

(نقشارة(سكسكة

84

Phyllosco pustrochillus

Willow Warbler

نقشارة الصفصاف، سكسكة الصفصاف

85

Ptyonoprog nefuligula

Rock Martin

خطاف الصخور الأفريقي

85

Pycnonotus xanthopygos

Yellow-vented Bulbul

بلبل أصفر العجز

86

Scotocerca inquieta

Scrub Warbler

نمنمة الشجر، هازجة الشجيرات

87

Streptopelias enegalensis

Laughing Dove

(يمام ضاحك (فاختة النخيل

88

Sturnus vulgaris

Starling

الزرزور الشائع

89

Sylvia atricapilla

Blackcap

(عصفور التين(ابو قلنسوة

90

Sylvia cantillans

Subalpine Warbler

هازجة (دخلة) الصرود

91

Sylvia communis

Whitethroat

دخلة بيضاء الزور، زريقة فيراني

92

Sylvia curruca

Lesser Whitethroat

زريقة فيرانية صغيرة

93

Sylvia hortensis

Orphean Warbler

هازجة (دخلة) الحدائق

94

Turdoid essquamiceps

Arabian Babbler

ثرثارة عربية

95

Turdus merula

Blackbird

شحرور

96

Turdus philomelos

Song Thrush

سمنة مغردة

97

Upupa epops

Hoopoe

هدهد

 

Flora Species

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

Arabic Name

1

Aerva javanica  (Burm. Fil.) juss

_____________

شجرة النعجة

2

Amaranthus retroflexus L

Common Amaranth

عرف الديك

3

Eryngium glomeratum Lam

_____________

عود القزم

4

Pistacia atlantica Desf

Atlantic Pistachio

بطم أطلسي

5

Nerium oleander L

Oleander

دفلى

6

Phoenix dactylifera L

Palm Tree, Date Plam

نخيل التمر

7

Calotropis procera (Aiton) Aiton fil

Sodom-Apple Tree

العشير

8

Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Schultz Bip

Sweet-smelling Lavender Cotton

قيصوم جبلي

9

Anthemis spp.

_____________

اقحوان 

10

Artemisia inculata Delile

Wormwood

شيح

11

Carlina hispanica

Corymbed Carline Thistle

ساق العروس

12

Centaurea eryngioides Lam.

Eryngo Centaury

مرار بنفسجي

13

Centaurea pallescens Delile

Pale Centaury

مرار باهت

14

Centaurea spp.

centaurycentorystarthistlesknapweedscentaureas

مرار

15

Cousinia dayi Post

_____________

_____________

16

Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter

False Yellowhead

طيون

17

Echinops glaberrimus DS

Globe Thistle

_____________

18

Iphiona mucronata (Forssk) Asch & Schweinf

Spiny G oldilocks

_____________

19

Lactuca undulata Ledeb

Lettuce

خس

20

Launaea mucronata (Forssk.) Muschler

_____________

الحوة النقطية

21

Notobasis syriaca (L.) Cass

Syrian Thistle

خرفيش الكبير

22

Onopordum palaestinum Eig

Palestine Cotton Thistle

عتور فلسطيني

23

Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass

Soldier Thistle

شوك الفار

24

Picris cyanocarpa Boiss

Oxtongue

_____________

25

Heliotropium rotundifolium Lehm

Round-leaved Turnsole

_____________

26

Alkanna strigosa Boiss & Hohen

Strigose Alkanet

خيلة، هوا جوي

27

Arnebia decumbens (Vent.) Cosson & Kralik

Prophet-Flower

كحل مضجع

28

Arnebia decumbens (Vent.) Cosson & Kralik

Erucaria

سليحي، سليح

29

Paracaryum rugulosum (DC.) Boiss

Persian Navelseed

غبيشة، أم لبيد

30

Podonosma orientalis (L.) Feinbrun

Golden-Drop

مصيص

31

Malcolmia africana (L) R. BR.

African Mustard

الورقة

32

Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC

Evening Stock

الشقارى

33

Notoceras bicorne (Solander) Caruel

Horned Hedge Mustard

هثارا

34

Capparis spinosa L

Common Caper

كبّار، قبار

35

Dianthus strictus Banks & Sol

Wild Pink

قرنفل بري

36

Gymnocarpos decandrum Forssk

_____________

قضيم , كرد

37

Paronychia argentea Lam

Paronychia

رجل الحمامة

38

Anabasis articulata (Forssk.) Moq

Jointed Anabasis

العجرم

39

Anabasis spp.



40

Atriplex leucoclada Boiss

Saltbush Orache

رغل أبيض الفروع

41

Bassia muricata (L.) Asch.

Hairy Saltwort

اللياء الأبرية

42

Chenopodium album L

Fachen

ذنب الكلب

43

Chenopodium murale L

Wall or Nettle Goosefoot

رمرام

44

Hammada salicornica (Moq.) Iljin

Hammada

الرمث

45

Salsola vermiculata 

Narrow-leaved Saltwort

روثا، حمض

46

Suaeda spp.

_____________

السوادة 

47

Helianthemum lippii (L.) Dum.Cours

Sun Rose

جرد، رقروق، أرجه

48

Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss

Hairy Rocket

حراقة، الحارة

49

Zilla spinosa (L.) Prantl

Zilla

سلة

50

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader

Bitter Apple

حنظل، شرى

51

Cucumis prophetarum L

Globe Cucumber

خيار بري صحراوي

52

Juniperus phoenicea L

Phoenician Juniper

عرعر فينيقي

53

Ephedra aphylla Forssk.

Ephedra

علند

54

Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Hayne

Umbrella Thorn

سيال، سمر

55

Astragalus asterias Hohen

Milk-Vetch

خزام القط

56

Astragalus sieberi DC

Sieber's Milk Vetch

خنصر العروس

57

Astragalus spinosus (Forssk.) Muschler

Spiny Milk Vetch

قتاد شوكي

58

Ononis natrix L.

Shrubby Restharrow

وسبة

59

Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb & Berth.

White Broom, Juniper Bush

الرتم

60

Trigonella stellata Forssk.

Star Fenugreek

نفل

61

Quercus coccifera L

Evergreen Oak

بلوط دائم الخضرة

62

Erodium gruinum (L.) L'Her

Stroks Bill

ابرة العجوز الكبيرة

63

Erodium hirtum Willd

Storks Bill

بختري

64

Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd

Cut-leaved Stork's Bill

قرنوة مقسمة

65

Lavandula coronopofolia Poiret

_____________

_____________

66

Marrubium cuneatum Banks & Sol

_____________

حمحم ، ربة اسفينية


67

Marrubium vulgare L

White Horehound

حشيشة الكلب ، فراسيون أبيض

68

Mentha longifloia (L.) Hudson

Biblical- or Horse Mint

نعناع طويل الأوراق

69

Phlomis brachyodon (Boiss) Zohary

Desert Phlomis

زهيرة، لهيب شرقي

70

Salvia lanigera Poiret

Desert Sage

قرعية

71

Salvia palaestina Bentham

Palestine Sage

قرعية فلسطينية

72

Salvia spp.

_____________

_____________

73

Teucrium polium L

Felty Germander

قدحة، جعدة

74

Ballota undulata (Sieber ex Fresen.) Bentham

 Common Black Horehound

رسا، أسغان

75

Asparagus spp.

_____________

زهر الهواء ،عجرم

76

Asphodelus ramosus L.

Common Asphodel

غيصلان

77

Urginea maritima (L.) Baker

Sea Onion

عيصلان

78

Malva parviflora L.

Cheesweed, Mallow

خبيزة

79

Malva sylvestris L

Common Mallow

خبيزة

80

Ficus carica L

Fig

تين عادي

81

Olea europaea L

Common Olive

زيتون بري

82

Cistanche salsa (C. A. Mey. ) G. Beck

Pink Broomrape

ذئنون ملحي

83

Plantago cylindrica Forssk

Cylindrical Plantain

ربل أسطواني، ينم

84

Avena sterilis L.

Animated Oat

سنيسلة، شوفان بري

85

Bromus spp.

_____________

_____________

85

Bromus tectorum L

Drooping Brome


86

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

Bermuda Grass

نجيل، ثيل

87

Hordeum spp.

_____________

شعير بري 

88

Stipa parviflora Desf

Feather Grass

عشب الريش 

89

Noaea mucronata (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf

Thorny Saltwort

شوك الحنيش

90

Ochradenus baccatus Delile

Ochradenus

قرضة، كرد

91

Reseda lutea L

Yellow Migonette

حصادي

92

Reseda muricata K. Presl

Prickly Mignonette

قرضة،قرضي

93

Rhamnus dispermus Ehrenb. Ex Boiss.

Buckthorn

سويد

94

Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. Ex DC

Hawthorn

زعرور عادي

95

Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach

Thorny Burnet

البلان، النتش

96

Galium aparine L

Cleaver's Goose Grass

_____________

97

Galium spp.

_____________

_____________

98

Populus euphratica Oliver

Euphrates Poplar

حور فراتي

99

Kickxia aegyptiaca (L.) Nabelek

Fluellen

فم السمكة

100

Scrophularia spp.

_____________

_____________

101

Verbascum fruticulosum Post

Mullein

البصير الشجري 

102

Verbascum sinaiticum Bentham

Verbascum Sinuatum

عمية، عورور

103

Datura stramonium L

Thornapple

الداتورة

104

Hyoscyamus aureus L

Golden-flowered Henbane

بنج، سكران

105

Hyoscyamus reticulatus L

Egyptian Henban

بنج، سكران

106

Solanum sinaicum Boiss

Nightshade

عنب الثعلب الصوفي

107

Solanum villosumMiller

Hairy-fruited nightshade

_____________

108

Tamarix spp.

_____________

الإثل

109

Forsskaolea tenacissima L

_____________

_____________

110

Fagonia mollis Delile

Soft Fagonia

حلاوة

111

Fagonia spp.

_____________

_____________

112

Peganum harmala L.

Peganum

حرمل

113

Zygophyllum dumosum Boiss

Bushy Bean Caper

عذبة، عذب