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Biodiversity Information Management System (BIMS) Project is a small component of the larger “Integrating Biodiversity Concepts in the Tourism Sector” Project (BITS)

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BIMS Project - RSCN
Jubaiha - Amman, Jordan
P: (962) 06 5337931
Email: bims@rscn.org.jo
Biodiversity Information Management System

Jerash -Dibeen

Locality and Administration:

Jarash Governorate lies in the north-west of Jordan, with a total area of around 410 km2. The Governorate is located between Irbid and Ajloun Governorates in the north, Ajloun Governorate in the west, Zarqa and Mafraq Governorates in the east and Belqa Governorate in the south. The Governorate has five municipalities:
(1) The Greater Jarash Municipality comprising Jarash City, Souf and Al-Kefir towns;
(2) Mi’rad Municipality comprising Rimon, Nahleh, Kitteh and Sakeb towns;
(3) Bab Amman Municipality comprising Marsa’, Mestaba and Jebbah towns;
(4) Al Naseem Municipality comprising Qafqafa, Al Rabwa, Kofor Khal and Belila towns; and
(5) Burma Municipality comprising of Burma town.

The study area covers around 155 Km2 covering the entire municipal area of Mi’rad, and Burma Municipalities, and comprises part of Greater Ajloun Municipality represented in Safa area.

Basically, the study area was identified by including all areas that lie within a radius of 5 km from Dibbin Forest Reserve boundary considering the administrative boundaries of concerned municipalities.

Although the area of Jarash Governorate is small, it has a considerably diverse topography. Altitudes range
from 100 meters below sea level at the King Talal Dam to 1,050 m above sea level (m asl) near Asfour and Souf.
Precipitation in the Governorate is relatively high (400 – 500 mm per year) with large number of springs.


Climate in general can be characterized as Mediterranean semi-arid with two distinct seasons:
a long dry hot summer season extending from May to September and a moderate winter season extending from October to April,
with the main rainfall occurring in the months from December to March.
The climate of the Governorate is highly influenced by elevation.



The western part which has elevations below 200 m asl has scarce rainfall and is dominated by hot dry weather. The northern part of the Governorate with elevations reaching 1,000 m asl has high annual precipitation (more than 600 mm) and frequent snowfall in winter. The Dibeen area, which has an elevation of 750 m asl and lies in the path of the humid west winds originating from the Mediterranean Sea, has an annual rainfall of around 500 mm. The area is characterized by deeply incised valleys, most having water flowing in them a limited number of days depending on rainfall, others are spring fed. Springs show a seasonal discharge variation, indicating restricted storage capacity of groundwater. The only perennial river in the Governorate is the Zerqa River, which discharges into the King Talal Dam.

Safa area extends along the north western part of the proposed study area. It consists of areas with medium elevations and a major wadi system, offering a variety of vegetation cover. Mixed land ownership with olive and other fruit trees, private land with houses and forested areas along both sides of the wadi system. The majority of the vegetation cover consists of the young evergreen oak trees

Socio-economic Aspects: The population of Jarash Governorate increased from 153602 inhabitant in the year 2004 to 237059 in the year 2015. About 86% of Jarash population lives within Jarash Municipalities. The population of the Miradh Municipality represent 8% of Jarash Governorate, while the population of Borma Municipality represent 6% of Jarash population. Non-Jordanians compromised about 29.2% of Jarash governorate population. The male : Female rate is 51.5%: 48.5%

The population of Ajloun governorate increased from 118725 in 2004 to 176080 inhabitant in the year 2015. According to personal communication with representatives from the local community in the southeastern part of Ajloun, the population estimate for each of Safsaf and Saknah villages is in general around 500 inhabitants, many from the Smadi and Zogohl trips.

Jarash Governorate falls within the Mediterranean Bio-geographical region of Jordan. Three vegetation types occur in Jarash, namely Pine Forest, Evergreen Oak Forest and Mediterranean Non-Forest Vegetation. The Pine Forests of Jordan are typical vegetation forms, with the trees of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) dominating. This forest vegetation usually occurs naturally on high altitudes, mostly over 700 m asl. Pine forests are made up of four strata namely
(i) The high trees: Pinus halepensis,
(ii) The low trees and shrubs: Arbutus andrachne, Quercus calliprines and Pistacia palaestina
(iii) Low shrubs and bushes: Calycotome villosa, Cistus villosus, Cistus salvifolius, Smila aspera and others, and
(iv) Herbaceous plants: Fumana arabica, Thesium bergeri, Helianthemun lavandulaefolium.

Evergreen Oak Forest is often classified as Mediterranean shrub land known as maquis or chaparral in other parts of the world. The dominant element is the evergreen oak Quercus calliprinos. It comprises the major part of the forest vegetation in Jordan. Many of the forest components are deciduous like Pistacia palaestina, Pyrus syriaca and Crataegas azarolus.

More than 266 flora species were recorded in the area of which 34 species are considered rare. Ten plant species have vulnerable status and one threatened status. These are:
Vulnerable: Pyramidal Orchid (Anacamptis pyramidalis), Abundant Flowering Orchid (Neotinea macalata),
Sword-leaved Helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia), Anatolian Orchid (Orchis anatolica), Violet Limodore (Limodorum aborytivum);
Spider Orchid (Ophrys transhyrcana), Toothed Orchid (Orchis tridentate), Holy Orchid (Orchis sancta), Nazaretti Iris (Iris bismarckiana),
Pistacio (Pistacia lentiscus);
Threatened: Cyclamen (Cyclamen pesticum).

From a flora biodiversity perspective, the most important area in the Jarash Governorate is the Dibeen forest,
which is an intact Mediterranean Pine forest . Dibeen forest is considered as a genetic source of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) trees.
Dibeen’s flora biodiversity also includes wild crops relatives such as wild olive (Olea europea), wild pear (Pyrus syriaca) and wild hawthorn (Crataegus azarolus).

The region hosts numerous species of rodents and mammals like foxes, wild cats, jackals, hyenas, as well as the Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), which is threatened by extinction. Also found in the Governorate are the Greek Tortoise (Testudo graeca),
Levant Green Lizard (Lacerta media), Mediterranean Thin-toed Gecko (Cyrtopodion heterocercum),
Stone Marten (Martes foina) and Persian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), all of which have a restricted range or are threatened in Jordan,
where they reach their southernmost limit in distribution.

As part of an Important Bird Area, many important birds were recorded like : Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Hobby (Falco longipennis), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), Syrian Woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus), Masked shrike (Lanius nubicus) and Woodchat shrike (Lanius senator), Hoopoe (Upupa epops), Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) and Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus).

The eastern Bonelli’s Warbler (Phylloscopus orientalis) used to breed in the past, but there is no recent evidence.
In winter the reserve harbours good numbers of Sparrow Hawk (Accipiter nisus), Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla),
Hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes) and Siskin (Fringilla spinus), among many others.
A phylogenetic study revealed that the isolated population of Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus) is genetically distinct from all other Eurasian populations.

Conservation

Within the study area , the only designated protected area is Dibbin Forest Reserve which was established in 2004 , through a Global Environment Facility fund, aimed to establish a nature reserve in Dibeen forest. The project laid down guidelines and strategies to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity in the forest area.

The protected area is considered nationally as a biodiversity hotspot since it supports many locally and globally significant endangered species. Moreover, Dibeen forest represents one of the best remaining examples of natural pine-oak forests in the region.

Dibeen Forest is also part of an Important Bird Area (IBA) 2000 with an area od 47 Km2 . It was established due to its distinctive bird community which includes breeding and resident species usually found around the Mediterranean and other temperate climates of Eurasia.

To the south of the study area lies the Kheyouf Special Conservation Area, which spans the border with Balqa Governorate and is part of the Zarqa River lower catchment, located to the west of the King Talal Dam.

Landuse:

Agriculture: the area of arable lands in the governorate is planted with field crop, fruit trees and vegetables. Olive and grape make up the largest percentage of fruit production. This sector suffers from a number of challenges and obstacles that include: fragmentation of agricultural holdings, high cost of production and weakness in competition with other markets. However, the development plan for the Jarash Governorate has given this sector top priority, and if this is pursued without due consideration of biodiversity, especially in the "catchments" and forest lands, the values of biodiversity in the governorate may suffer. Accordingly, any development planning process for this sector must take into account land use plans, zones, patterns and farming practices in the areas near or overlapping with forest lands, natural pastures and watersheds.

Tourism: Statistics indicate that this sector is the most promising and competitive in the governorate. This arises from the existence of the city of Jarash and richness of natural scenery, aesthetics and forests and makes the governorate a popular destination for a wide range of foreign visitors and Jordanians alike. The historical city of Jarash is the second most important tourist destination in Jordan in terms of visitor numbers.

The proximity of Jarash Governorate to the heavily populated cities like Amman, Zerqa and Irbid makes it a favorite destination for leisure and recreation by Jordanians, particularly in the summer season and on Fridays, when Jordanians prefer recreation in the highlands characterized with a temperate climate and dense vegetation cover. As a result, the Dibeen Protected Area is one of the favorite summer destinations for Jordanians. Around 80,000 persons visited the PA in 2011.

Official statistics on Gulf citizens’ tourism in Jordan show an increase of more than 14% between 2011 and 2012. This growth is supported by the current political situation in the region, which is giving Jordan an increasing popularity, due its stability and the mutual connections that join the Gulf people with Jordanians in terms of traditions and social customs, taking into consideration that most of the Gulf tourism is family-based for leisure and recreation purpose, and extends for one or two weeks during summer time.

Challenges

Encroachment on forest lands

Encroachment on forest lands by turning the forests to agricultural lands is considered the most serious problem facing vegetation
cover in the study area. This practice is causing deterioration of the forest lands through;
fragmentation of the habitats and limiting the forest expansion.

Woodcutting

Generally; woodcutting threats all forest lands in Jordan. It causes habitat fragmentation on the long run ,
and reduces the soil fertility as a result for trees removal.
This problem increases as the people’s demand of woods for heating purposes and charcoal productions increases

Fires

Fire is considered one of the most serious problems that face forests in Jordan.
The burnt forests need a long time to recover and return to its original status , thus turning it to farmlands .
On another hand the fauna is directly affected by fire.

Tourism management

The area is heavily used as an escape for the city residents of Amman , Zarqa and Irbid. High numbers of visitors use the forest specially at weekends.
The high number of local tourists increase the pressure on the forest in several ways :

- Trash and litter dumping
- Increase fire possibilities
- Opening new dirt roads
- Wild plants gathering
- Wildlife disturbance : specially during nesting season for birds .

Fauna Species

 

Species

Common Name       

Arabic Name

 1

 Crocidurasuaveolens

 Lesser White-toothed Shrew

_____________

 2

 Suncusetruscus

 Pygmy White-toothed Shrew

الزبابة القزم

 3

 Erinaceus concolor

 East European Hedgehog

قنفذ اوروبي

 4

 Hemiechinus auritus

 Long-eared Hedgehog

قنفذ اذاني

 5

 Sciurusanomalus

 Persian Squirrel

السنجاب الفارسي

 6

 Eliomys melanurus

 Southwest Asian Garden Dormouse

فأر الحدائق

 7

 Cricetulusmigratorius

 Grey Hamster

الهامستر الرمادي

 8

 Microtus guentheri

 Levant Vole

فأر الحقل

 9

 Acomys dimidiatus

 Eastern Spiny Mouse

_____________

 10

 Dipodillusdasyurus

 Wagner's Gerbil

يربوع واجنر

 11

 Meriones tristrami

 Tristram's Jird

جرذ ترسترام

 12

 Apodemus flavicollis

 Yellow-necked Field Mouse

_____________

 13

 Apodemus mystacinus

 Broad-toothed Field Mouse

فأر الحقل عريض الاسنان

 14

 Spalaxe hrenbergi

 Middle East Blind Mole Rat

_____________

 15

 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

 Larger Horseshoe Bat

خفاش حدوة الفرس الكبير

 16

 Rhinopoma cystops

 Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat

خفاش بودنهيمر

 17

 Tadarida teniotis

 European Free-tailed Bat

خفاش طليق الذنب الاوروبي

 18

 Miniopterus pallidus

 _____________

_____________

 19

 Myotise marginatus

 Notch-eared Bat

خفاش مثلم الاذن

 20

 Myotis nattereri

 Natterer's Bat

خفاش نتار

 21 

 Pipistrellus kuhli

 Kuhl's Pipistrelle

خفاش كول

 22 

 Canis lupus

 Arabian Wolf

الذئب العربي

 23

 Vulpes vulpes

 Red Fox

الثعلب الاحمر

 24

 Felis silvestris

 Wild Cat

القط البري

 25

 Hyaena hyaena

 Striped Hyaena

الضبع

 26

 Martes foina

 Stone Marten

الدلق الصخري

 27

 Meles meles

 Eurasian Badger

الغريري

 28

 Rhinolophus euryale

 Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat

خفاش حدوة الفرس الشرق الوسطى

 29

 Rhinolophus hipposideros

 Lesser Horseshoe Bat

خفاش حدوة الفرس الصغير

 30

Rousettus aegyptiacus

 Egyptian Fruit Bat

خفاش الفاكهة

 31

 Rhinolophus blasii

 Blasius's Horseshoe Bat

 خفاش حدوة الفرس

 32

 Sus scrofa

 Wild Boar 

 الخنزير البري

 33

 Bufo viridis

 The Green Toad

علجوم أخضر

 34

Testudo graeca

 Mediterranean Tortoise

السلحفاة الاغريقية

 35

 Hemidactylus turcicus

 Turkish Gecko

وزغ تركي،الوزغة

 36

 Ptyodactylu sguttatus

 Sinai Fan-fingered Gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة

 37

 Ptyodactylus puiseuxi

Spotted Fan-fingered Gecko

أبو بريص، الوزغة

 38

 Cyrtopodion kotschyi

 Mediterranean Thin-Toed Gecko

ابو بريص،سوام ابرص

 39

 Laudakia stellio

Starred Agama

سحلية عجما سوداء

 40

 Chamaeleo chamaeleon

 Common Chameleon

الحرباء

 41

 Phoenicolacerta laevis

 Lebanon Lizard

_____________

 42

 Lacerta media 

 Eastern giant green lizard

السحلية الخضراء

 43

 Lacerta laevis

 Syrische Eidechse

_____________

 44

 Ophisops elegans

 Snake-eyed Lizard

سحلية عين الحية

 45

 Ablepharus rueppellii

 Rueppel’s Snake-eyed skink

_____________

 46

 Mabuya vittata

 Bridled Skink

سحلية

47

Eumecess chneiderii

Schneider's Skink

 الرضاعية، الرغاية

48

Ophiomorus latastii

Jordan limbless skink

_____________

49

Trachylepis vittata

Bridled Mabuya

_____________

50

Rhinotyphlops simoni

Simon’s Blind Snake

حية دودية عمياء

51

Typhlopsver micularis

Worm Snake

الحية اليونانية العمياء، دودة

52

Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus

 Hook-billed Blind Snake

الحية الدودية الخيطية

53

Dolichophis jugularis

Large Whip Snake

عربيد، حنش

54

Hemorrhois nummifer

 Coin Snake

الحية المرقطة

55

Platyceps collaris

 Red Whip Snake

_____________

56

Eirenis coronella

Crowned Dwarf Snake

حية السلام المطوقة

57

Eirenis rothi

Roth's Dwarf Racer

حية السلام مخططة الرأس

58

Eirenis decemlineata

Narrow-striped Dwarf Snake 

حية السلام المخططة

59

Malpolon insignitus

Montpellier Snake

الخضاري

60

Rhynchocalamus melanocephalus

Black-headed Dwarf Snake

حية سوداء الرأس

61

Telescopusnigriceps

 Black-headed Cat Snake

حية القط سوداء الرأس

62

Micrelaps muelleri

Mueller’s Ground Viper

حية مولر الأرضية

63

Daboia palaestinae

Palestine Viper

افعى فلسطينية 

 

Avifauna Species

 

Species

Common Name

Arabic Name

1

Circaetus gallicus

 Short-toed eagle

عقاب صرارة،نسر الثعابين

2

Sylvia curruca

 Lesser whitethroat

زريقة فيرانية صغيرة

3

Hirundo rustica

 Barn Swallow

سنونو

4

Streptopelia senegalensis

 Palm dove 

(يمام ضاحك (فاختة النخيل

5

Emberiza caesia

 Cretzschmar’s bunting

درسة كرتزجمار ،مزرقة الرأس

6

Parus major

 House sparrow

عصفور دوري

7

Serinus serinus

 European Serin

كناري،نعار أوروبي

8

Fringilla coelebs

 Chaffinch

عصفور ظالم

9

Pycnonotus xanthopygos

 Yellow-vented Bulbul

بلبل أصفر العجز

10

Phylloscopus collybita

 Chiffchaff

(نقشارة(سكسكة

11

Turdus merula

 Blackbird

شحرور

12

Falco naumanni

Lesser Kestrel

عويسق

13

Ciconia ciconia

 White Stork

لقلق أبيض ،أبو سعد

14

Aquila clanga

 Spotted Eagle

عقاب أسفع (أرقط) كبير

15

Streptopelia decaocto

Eurasian Collared-dove

حمام مطوق، يمام مطوق

16

Cuculus canorus

 Cuckoo

وقواق شائع

17

Apus pallidus

 Pallid Swift

سمامة باهتة

18

Dendrocopos syriacus

 Syrian Woodpecker

ناقر الخشب السوري

19

Sylvia hortensis

 Eastern orphean warbler

 هازجة (دخلة) الحدائق

20

Sylvia melanocephala

 Sardinian warbler

هازجة (دخلة) سردينيا الرأساء

21

Galerida cristata

 Crested lark

قبرة متوجة

22

Streptopelia turtur

 Turtle dove

حمام رقطي، القمري

23

Carduelis cannabina

 Linnet

حسون تفاحي

24

Garrulus glandarius

Eurasian Jay

(القيق (الزرياب-أبو زريق

25

Muscicapa striata

 Spotted flycatcher

(خاطف الذباب الأرقط (المنقط

26

Carduelis spinus

 Siskin

حسون الشوك

27

Fringilla montifringilla

 Brambling

شرشور جبلي، عصفور زغاري

28

Muscicapi astriata

 Palestine Sunbird

تمير فلسطيني، مغرد فلسطيني

29

Saxicola torquata

 Stonechat

قليعي مطوق

30

Lullula arborea

 Woodlark

(قبرة الغاب (الغياض

31

Buteo rufinus

 Long-legged Buzzard

حوام طويل الساق، صقر حوام

32

Passer hispaniolensis

 Honey Buzzard

(حوام النحل الآسيوي (المتوج

33

Accipiter brevipes

 Levant Sparrowhawk

باشق شرقي (بيدق)، باشق ليفانت

34

Aquila pomarina

 Lesser Spotted Eagle

عقاب أسفع(أرقط)  صغير

35

Falco naumanni

 Lesser Kestrel

عويسق

36

Streptopelia turtur

 Turtle Dove

حمام رقطي، القمري

37

Otus brucei

 Scops Owl

بومة الأشجار المخططة 

38

Bee-eater

Roller

طائر الوروار 

39

Galerida cristata

 Crested Lark

قبرة متوجة

40

Hippolais pallida

 Olivaceous warbler

هازجة زيتونية، خنشع زيتوني

41

Troglodytes troglodytes

 Wren

(الصعو (النمنمة

42

Dendrocopos syriacus

 Syrian woodpecker

ناقر الخشب السوري

43

Carduelis chloris

 Greenfinch

حسون أخضر

44

Lanius nubicus

 Masked shrike

صرد (دقناش) مقنع

45

Phylloscopus bonelli

 Bonelli's warbler

نقشارة بونللي

46

Parus caeruleus

 Blue Tit

القرقف الأزرق

47

Erithacus rubecula

 Robin

أبو الحناء،أبو الحن أحمر الصدر

48

Milvus migrans

 Black Kite

حدأة  سوداء

49

Levant Sparrowhawk

 Steppe Buzzard

صقر حوّام, عقاب السهول, عقاب السهول

50

Aquila nipalensis

 Steppe Eagle

عقاب السهول)البادية)

51

Falco subbuteo

 Hobby

(شويهين (البيدق

52

Strix aluco

 Tawny Owl

بومة سمراء ، بومةبتلر

53

Coracias garrulus

 Roller

غراب زيتوني

54

Upupa epops

 Hoopoe

هدهد

55

Alectoris chukar

 Chukar

حجل، شنار

56

Petronia brachydactyla

 Rock sparrow

عصفور صخري

57

Oriolus oriolus

 Great tit

القرقف الكبير

58

Corvus corone

 Hooded Crow

غراب أبقع

59

Sylvia atricapilla

 Blackcap

(عصفور التين(ابو قلنسوة

60

Turdus philomelos

Song Thrush

سمنة مغردة

61

Columba palumbus

 Wood Pigeon

حمام الغابات

62

Circus macrourus

 Pallid Harrier

مرزة بغثاء،باهتة

63

Hieraaetus pennatus

 Booted Eagle

(العقاب المسيرة (المنتعلة

64

Psittacula krameri

 Ring-necked Parakeet

درة هندية مطوقة

65

Apus apus

 Swift

سمامة عادية

66

Ptyonoprogne rupestris

 Crag Martin

خطاف الشواهق

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Flora Species

 

Species

Common Name      

Arabic Name

1

 Adiantum capillus-veneris

 Southern maidenhair fern

_____________

2

 Ixiolirion tataricum 

 Ixiolirion

 زعيتمان أزرق

3

Pistacia atlantica 

 Atlantic Pistachio

 بطم أطلسي

4

 Pistacia palaestina

 Palestine Pistacio

 بطم فلسطيني

5

 Rhus cariaria

 Sumach; Tanner's sumach

 سماق

6

 Arum hygrophilum

 Water Arum

 لوف مائي , كف الدب

7

 Arisarum vulgare

 Jack-in-the-pulpit

_____________

8

 Ceterach officinarium

 Rusty spleenwort

_____________

9

 Alkanna tinctoria

 Dyer's Alkanet

حنا الغول

10

 Anchusa strigosa

 Pirckly Alkanet

 كحلاء، حمحم ، مصيص

11

 Asperago procumbens

 German Madwort

سلسلة، سيليس

12

 Buglosoides teusiflora

Gromwell _____________

13

 Cynoglossum creticum

 Blue hound's tongue

غريف، لزّيق

14

Echium judaeum

Bugloss حمحم الغور

15

 Heliotropium sp

 Heliotrope

 زريقاء أوروبي

16

 Myosotis ramosissima

 Early forget-me-not

 أذن الفأر المتفرع

17

 Myosotis uncata

 Forget-me-not

_____________

18

 Nonea obtusifolia

 Saltwort

_____________

19

 Symphytum palestaeum

 Comfrey

_____________

20

 Campanula stellaris

 Star Bellflower

_____________

21

 Campanula strigosa

 Strigose Bellflower

 زهرة الجرس الشوكية

22

 Lagoecia spculum-veneris

 Venus' Looking-Glass

 زهرة الجرس

23

 Capparis spinosa

 Egyptian Caper

  كبّار ،قبار

24

 Lonicera etrusca

 Honeysuckle

 عبهر, زهر العسل

25

 Cerastium dichotomum

 Chickweed; Grasswort

_____________

26

 Minuartia deciplens

 Sandwort

 أبو حريبة زهري

27

 Minuartia hybrida

 Fine-leaved sandwort

_____________

28

 Paronychia argentea

 Silver Knotgrass

 رجل الحمامة

29

 Silene colorata

 Catchfly

 عين البنت

30

 Silene vulgaris

 Bladder Campion

 فقيع, طقيق

31

 Velezia rigida

 Velezia

_____________

32

 Cistus creticus

 Pink Rock-Rose

لبيد زهري

33

 Cistus salvifolius 

 White Rock-Rose

 لباد أبيض

34

 Fumana arabica

 Fumana

_____________

35

 Fumana thymifolia

 Thyme-Leaved Fumana

_____________

36

 Helianthemum sallcifolium

 Sun Rose

جرد , رقروق

37

 Achillea biebersteinii

 Yarrow

جعدة صبيان ، فلفل رفيع

38

 Anthemis sp

 Chamomile

بابونج 

39

 Atractylis cancellata

 Distaff thistle

جلوة متحابكة

40

 Centaurea iberica

 Iberian Centaury

 مرار شائع

41

Centaurea hyalolepis

 Centaury

 مرار زاحف

42

 Chardinia orientalis

 Chardinia

 كاردينيا

43

 Cichorium pumilum

 Dwarf Chicory

_____________

44

 Crepis hierosolymitana

 Crepis hierosolymitana

 صفيرة

45

 Crupina Crupinastrum

 Crupina

 كروبينا

46

 Dittrichia viscosa

 Clammy Inula

 طيون

47

 Echinops sp.

 Globe thistle

_____________

48

 Filago pyramidata

 Cudweed

_____________

49

 Helichrysum sanguineum

 Everlasting, Sun-Gold

 بزاز العذراء , دم المسيح

50

 Lactuca tuberosa

 Lettuce

_____________

51

 Launaea capitata

 Clustered Launea

 مرار لبني

52

 Notobasis syriaca

 Syrian Thistle

 خرفيش

53

 Pallenis spinosa

Prickly Oxeye

 عين الثور

54

 Phagnalon rupestre

 African Fleabane

 قدحة

55

 Picnomon acarna

 Yellow Cnicus

 شوك الفار

56

 Rhagadiolus edulis

 Rhagadiolus

_____________

57

Rhagadiolus stellatus

Rhagadiolus رويس

58

 Senecio varnalis

 Spring Groundsel

صفيرة

59

 Tanacetum santolinoides

 Globe thistle

_____________

60

 Thrincia tuberosa

 Thrincia

_____________

61

 Tragopogon coelesyriacus

 Goat's-Beard

ذنب الفرس

62

 Urospermum dalechompii

 Sheep's beard

_____________

63

 Varthemia iphinoides

 Varthemia

كتيلة، صفيرة

64

 Convolvulus palaestinus

 Palestine bindweed

_____________

65

 Convolvulus arvensis

 Bind weed

مداد، لبلاب الحقول

66

 Sedum rubens

 Red Stonecrop

عرف الديك

67

 Umbilicus intermedius

 Navalwort

عصا الراعي

68

 Alyssum damascenum

 Madwort

_____________

69

 Alyssum iranicum

 Madwort

_____________

70

 Arabis verna

 Early rocket

_____________

71

 Biscutella didyma

 Buckler Mustard

شليق

72

 Buckler Mustard

 Disk cress

_____________

73

Erophila verna

 Common withlow grass

_____________

74

 Eruca sativa

 Garden Rocket

جرجير / روجة

75

 Erucaria hispanica

 Erucaria

غراء

76

 Erucaria boveana

 Sand pink mustard

سليحي, سليح

77

 Fibigia clypeata

 Fibigia

درهمية

78

 Hesperis pendula

 Dames rocket

_____________

79

 Sinapis alba

 White Mustard

خردل ابيض

80

 Sinapis arvensis

 Charlock

خردل بري

81

Thlaspi arvense

Pennycress

_____________

82

Bryonia cretica

Cretan Bryony

عنب الحية, بطيخ الحية

83

Bryonia syriaca

Syrian Bryony

_____________

84

Scirpus holoschoenus

Bulrush; cluster-headed rush

_____________

85

Cephalaria tenella

Scabious

زيوان، مرار عسلوجي

86

Pterocephalas brevis

Pterocephalus

_____________

87

Pterocephalas plumosus

Plumed scabious

_____________

88

Scabiosa palaestina 

Scabious

زيوان، مرار عسلوجي

89

Scabiosa prolifera

Carmel Daisy

_____________

90

Ephedra sp.

Ephedra

علند

91

Arbutus andrachne

Strawberry Tree

قيقب، القطلب

92

Euphorbia hierosolymitana

Spurge

حلببون، حليلوب

93

Quercus aegilops

Oak

سنديان متساقط الأوراق

94

Quercus calliprinos

Evergreen Oak

_____________

95

Quercus infectoria

Deciduous Oak

_____________

96

Fumaria densifolia

Dense-Flowered Fumitory

شاهترج، رز الدجاج

97

Ceratocapnos turbinata

Israel fumitory

_____________

98

Erodium acaule

Roman Stork's-Bill

كسوب الساعة

99

Erodium gruinum

Storks Bill

ابرة العجوز الكبيرة

100

Erodium laciniatum

Cut-leaved stork's bill

قرنوة مقسمة

101

Geraium rotundifolium

Geranium

عطر، غرنوف 

102

Geranium libani

Geranium

_____________

103

Geranium lucidum

Geranium

_____________

104

Aegilops ligustica

Truncate goatgrass

_____________

105

Avena barbata

Slender wild oat

_____________

106

Avena sterilis

Wild Oats

شوفان

107

Brachypodium distachyon

Purple false-brome

_____________

108

Brumos tectorum 

Drooping brome;Wall grass

_____________

109

Catapodium rigidum

Hard meadow grass

_____________

110

Cynosurus effusus

Dog's tail

_____________

111

Echinaria capitata

Prickly grass

_____________

112

Festuca arundinacea

Meadow- or tall fescue

_____________

113

Hordium bulbosum

Bulbous barley

شعير بصلي

114

Hordium spontoneum

Wild Barley

شعير بري

115

Hyparrhenia hirta.

Thatching grass

_____________

116

Lolium rigidum

Annual- or Wimmera ryegrass

_____________

117

Rostraria smyrnacea

Hairgrass

_____________

118

Piptatherum miliaceum

Rice millet

_____________

119

Poa bulbosa

Bulbous meadow

قثاء  بصلي

120

Stipa capensis

Twisted-awn speargrass

صمعة ، ركيبة

121

Tetrapogon villosa

Tetrapogon

_____________

122

Gynandriris sisyrinchium (iris)

Gynandriris

_____________

123

Iris bismarckiana

Nazareth iris

_____________

124

Ajuga chia

Chian Bugle

عشبة الدم

125

Ballota saxatilis

Horehound

_____________

126

Ballota undulata

Common Black Horehound

شرمان، كتيلة

127

Lamium amplexicaule

Henbit deadnettle

لاميوم

128

Lamium moschatum

Musky Archangel

كريس , جرية الحمامة, قريس جاج

129

Micromeria nervosa

Savory

زعتر غير شائع

130

Phlomis viscosa

Jerusalem Sage

ركلب الجمل , مصيص

131

Prasium majos

Great hedge nettle

_____________

132

Salvia hierosolymitana

Jerusalem Sage

ورق اللسان, لسينة

133

Salvia indica

Large-Flowered Sage

لسينة هندية

134

Scutellaria brevibracteata

Scutellaria

_____________

135

Stachys cretica

Cretan Woundwort

_____________

136

Teucrium polium

Felty Germander

قدحة

137

Ziziphora capitata

Field basil

_____________

138

Anagyris foetida

Bean Trefoil

خروب الخنازير

139

Anthylis tetraphylla

Anthylis

_____________

140

Astragalus cruciatus

Astragalus

خزام القط

141

Astragalus deinacanthus

Milk-vetch

القتاد الحلقي 

142

Calicatome villosa

Thorny Broom

القندول،  الجربان

143

Ceratonia siliqua

Carob

الخروب

144

Coronilla scorpinoides

Scorpion senna

قرنيلا

145

Hippocrepis unisiliquosa

Horseshoe vetch

حدوية وحيدة القرن

146

Hymenocallis cincinnatus

Disk trefoil

_____________

147

Lathyrus aphaca

Vetchling

جلبان عفقة

148

Lathyrus blepharicarpus

Vetchling

سيسعة, سعيسعة, جلبانة

149

Lathyrus hierosolymitaus

Vetchling

_____________

150

Lotus cytisoides

Downy bird's-foot trefoil

_____________

151

Lotus edulis

Edible bird's-foot trefoil

اللوتس

152

Lotus pereginus

Bird's-foot trefoil

_____________

153

Medicago coronata

Crown medick

_____________

154

Medicago orbicularis

Shepherd's Bread

_____________

155

Medicago radiata

Medick

نفل مشعشع

156

Medicago rotata 

Medick

_____________

157

Onobrychis squarrosa

Sainfoin

العنبريس الحرشفي 

158

Ononis pubescens

Downy rest harrow

الشبرق الزغبي

159

Ononis viscosa

Clammy rest harrow

شبرق لزج نويع الصقلي

160

Pisum fluvum

Yellow wild pea

بسلة كهرمانية

161

Pisum syriacum

Pea

البازلاء

162

Psoralea bituminosa

Bituminose Pitch Trefoil

_____________

163

Scorpiurus muricatus

Scorpion's tail 

_____________

164

Tetragonolobus palaestinus

Four-winged pea

سيسعة، جلثون، سيبعة

165

Trifolium angustifolium

Narrow-leaved clover

_____________

166

Trifolium campestre

Yellow Clover

قرط أصفر

167

Trifolium clusii

Clover

_____________

168

Trifolium clypeatum

Shield Clover

النفل المدرع

169

Trifolium purpureum

Purple Clover

نفل قرنفلي

170

Trifolium resupinatum

Pink Clover

نفل وردي 

171

Trifolium stellatum

Star Clover

برسيم نجمي

172

 Trifolium tomentosum

Woolly trefoil or Woolly clover

كريشة الراعي /نفل البر

173

Vicia sativa

Common Vetch

بيقية ضيقة الأوراق،فول مزروع

174

Allium truncatum

Garlic

ثوم العرب، ثوم الجبل

175

Asparagus stipularis

Asparagus

زهر الهواء ،عجرم

176

Asphodelus aestivus

Asphodel

غيصلان - عطعاط

177

Leopoldia eburnea

Tassel Hyacinth

بلبوس عاجي

178

Muscari bicolor (Leopoldia)

Grape-Hyacinth

بصل الحية ، اجراس زرقاء

179

Ornithogolum montanum

Star of Bethlehem

صاصل جبلي

180

Ornithogolum narbonensis

Star of Bethlehem

صاصل ناربوني, نجمة بيت لحم

181

Smilax aspera

Prickly Ivy

_____________

182

Tulipa agenensis

Tulip

تيوليب., زنبق, قرن الغزال

183

Urginea maritima

Sea-Squill

عيصلان, بوصلان

184

Linum srictum

Upright yellow flax

_____________

185

Linum nodiflorum

Flax

كتان عقدي الزهر

186

Linum pubescens

Pink Flax

آتان زهري

187

Alcea acaulis

Stemless Holly Hock

ختمية زاحفة

188

Alcea setosa

Holly Hock

خبيزة زهور ختمية

189

Malva parviflora

Mallow

خبيزة

190

Ficus carica

Fig

تين عادي

191

Olea europa

Olive

زيتون بري

192

Anacamptis pyramidalis

Pyramid orchid

_____________

193

Cephalanthera longifolia

Sword-Leaved Helleborine

أوركيد أوراق السيف

194

Limodorum aborytivum

Violet Limodore

اوركيد بنفسجي

195

Neotinea maculata 

Dense-spiked orchid

_____________

196

Ophrys anatolica

Anatolian Orchid

_____________

197

Orchis transhyrcana

Spider Orchid

اوركيد العنكبوت

198

Orchis sancta

Holy Orchid

الاوركيد المقدس

199

Orchis tridentata

Toothed Orchid

اوركيد مسنن

200

Papaver subpiriforme

Poppy

الخشخاش الأبجر

201

Pinus halepenisisn

Aleppo- or Jerusalem pine

صنوبر حلبي

202

Plantago lanceolata

Plantain

لسان الحمل الصغير

203

Rumex cyprius

Dock,Sorrel

حميض

204

Anagalis arvensis

Pimpernel

عين القط، عين الجمل

205

Cyclamen persicum

Cyclamen

سيكلامن، قرن الغزال

206

Cytinus hypocistus

Cytinus

_____________

207

Adonis annua

Pheasant's Eye

 أدونيس مسنن

208

Adonis microcarpa

Pheasant's Eye

حنون البس

209

Adonis palestina

Pheasant's Eye

الأدونيس الفلسطيني

210

Anemone coronoria

Common Anemone

أنيمون، شقائق النعمان

211

Clematis cirrhosa

Evergreen Virgin's-Bower

حبل مسكي

212

Clematis flammula

Sweet virgin's bower

_____________

213

Nigella cioiaris

Fennel Flower

_____________

214

Ranunculus asiaticus

Buttercup

_____________

215

Ranunculus millefolium

Buttercup

_____________

216

Reseda lutea

Yellow Mignonette

حصادي

217

Rhamnus palestinus

Palestine buckthorn

سويد  فلسطين

218

Amygdalus communis

Bitter Almond

لوز

219

Crataegus aronia

Hawthorn

زعرور عادي

220

Crataegus azarolus

Hawthorn

زعرور

221

Pyrus syriaca

Syrian Pear

كمثرى سورية

222

Sarcopoterium spinosum

Thorny Burnet

البلان، النتش

223

Cruciata articulata

Cruciata

_____________

224

Galium aparine

Cleaver's goose grass

_____________

225

Galium judoicum

Judean bedstraw

_____________

226

Galium pisiferum

Bedstraw

غاليوم بسلي الثمر

227

Rubia tinctorum

Madder; Dyer's madder

_____________

228

Valantia hispida

Bristly Crosswort

_____________

229

Osyris alba

Gardarobe; Poet's cassia

زنبق الماء

230

Thesium bergeri

Bastard toad flax

_____________

231

Thesium humile

Dwarf thesium

کوفية القمح

232

Kickxia aegyptiaca

Fluellen

فم السمكة

233

Parentucellia flaviflora

Broad-leaved eyebright

_____________

234

Scropholaria xanthoglossa

Figwort

_____________

235

Verbascum sp.

Mullein

البصير الشجري 

236

Veronica persica

Persian speedwell

زهرة الحواشي الفارسية 

237

Veronica polita

Twin speedwell

_____________

238

Cheilanthes fragrans

Lip Fern

سرخس 

239

Mandragora autumnalis

Mandrake

تفاح المجانين ، شجاع

240

Solanum luteum

Nightshade

عنب الثعلب الصوفي

241

Styrax officinalis

Storax-Tree

العبهر

242

Ainsworthia trachycarpa

Ainsworthia

_____________

243

Artedia squamata

Artedia

ارتيديا

244

Astomaea seselifolium

Astomaea

أستومايا أنجداني الأوراق

245

Bifora testiculata

Small coriander

الكزبرة الصغيرة

246

Chaetosciadium trichosperum

Hairy-seeded chervil

مشط الزهرة 

247

Bulpeurum nodiflorum

Hare's ear

الدبيق،أو ضلع البقرة 

248

Bulpeurum lancifolium

lancifolium

حلوان

249

Daucus bicolor

Daucus

_____________

250

Eryngium creticum

Syrian Eryngo

شنراب , شوك العركباتي

251

Ferulago nodosa

Fennel

شومر ، شمر

252

Lagoecia cuminoides

Common wild cumin

حشيشة الذهب

253

Lecokia cretica

Cretan Lecokia

_____________

254

Orlaya daucoides

Broad-fruited bastard parsley

_____________

255

Orlaya daucoides

Broad-fruited bastard parsley

_____________

256

Scandix pecten-veneris

Venus Comb

مشط الراعي 

257

Smyrniopsis cachroides

Smyrniopsis

_____________

258

Torilis arvensis

Spreading hedge-parsley

_____________

259

Torilis leptophylla

Fine-leaved hedge-parsley

كزبرة 

260

Parietaria sp.

Parietaria

لسان الطير, خشيشة الجدار

261

 Valeriana italica v. dioseoridis

 Italian Valerian

نبات الناردين الايطالي

262

 Valerianella muricata

 Corn salad

_____________

263

 Valerianella vesicoria

 Bladder-fruited corn salad

حشيشة القط


بابونج

_____________

_____________